The estimation of a number is a reasonable guess of the actual
value.

**Estimation**means**approximating a quantity**to the accuracy required. This is done by**rounding off**the**numbers**involved and getting a quick, rough answer.
The numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 are nearer to 0. So, these numbers are rounded
off to the lower ten. The numbers 6, 7, 8 and 9 are nearer to 10.
So, these numbers are rounded off to the higher ten. The number 5 is
equidistant from both 0 and 10, so it is rounded off to the higher ten.

Eg:

(ii) We round off 57 to the nearest ten as 60

(iii) We round off 45 to the nearest ten as 50

The numbers 1 to 49 are closer to 0. So, these numbers are rounded
off to the nearest hundred. The numbers 51 to 99 are closer to the lower
hundred. So, these numbers are rounded off to the higher hundred. The number 50
is rounded off to the higher hundred.

Eg:

(i) We round off 578 to the nearest 100 as 600.

(ii) We round off 310 to the nearest 100 as 300.

Similarly, 1 to 499 are rounded off to the lower thousand, and
501 to 999 to the higher thousand. The number 500 is equidistant from both 0
and 1000, and so it is rounded off to the higher thousand.

Eg:

(i)We round off 2574 to the nearest thousand as 3000.

(ii)We round off 7105 to the nearest thousand as 7000.

**Estimation of sum or difference:**

- When we estimate sum or difference, we should have an idea of the place to which the rounding is needed.

Eg: (i) Estimate 4689 + 19316

We can say that 19316 > 4689

We shall round off the numbers to the nearest thousands.

is rounded off to 19000

4689 is rounded off to 5000

Estimated sum:

19000 + 5000=24000

(ii) Estimate 1398-526

We shall round off these numbers to the nearest hundreds.

1398 is rounded off to 1400

526 is rounded off to 500

Estimated difference:

1400-500=900

**Estimation of the product:**

- To
**estimate the product**, round off each factor to its greatest place, then multiply the**rounded off factors**.

Eg: Estimate 92 x 578

The first number, 92, can be rounded off to the nearest ten as 90.

The second number, 578, can be rounded off to the nearest hundred as 600.

Hence, the estimated product =90 x 600 = 54,000

- Estimating the outcome of number operations is useful in checking the answer.

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