Parts of a Plant
  • The different parts of a plant are the roots, stem, leaves, flowers and fruits.
  • The roots of a plant are mostly seen underground and look brown in colour.
  • The tiny thread-like structures over the roots are the root hair. The tip of the root is called the root cap.
  • Roots are of two types - tap root and fibrous roots.
  • Some plants have a primary root that grows more or less straight down into the soil, and is tapered towards the end. This main root is called the tap root.
  • There are many smaller roots that branch out from the tap root, called lateral roots.
  • Examples of plants with tap roots are hibiscus, carrot, turnip and sunflower.
  • Some plants have many lateral roots that start from the base of the stem. These are called fibrous roots.
  • Examples of plants with fibrous roots are banana, grass and onion.
  • The roots hold the plant firmly in the soil, thereby serving as an anchor to the plant.
  • One of the main functions of the roots is to absorb water and nutrients from the soil for the growth of the plant. Sometimes they also store sugars and carbohydrates.
  • The stem holds the leaves, flowers and fruits in a plant.
  • The vascular tissue inside the stem helps to transport water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves, and food from the leaves to the roots.
  • Plants release excess water in the form of water vapour through minute openings in the leaves, called the stomata. This process is known as transpiration.
  • The different parts of a flower include sepals, petals, stamen and pistil.                     
  • The green leaf-like parts surrounding the bud are called the sepals.
  • The brightly coloured parts of a flower are called the petals.
  • The male part of a flower is called the stamen, and the female part is called the pistil.
  • The male and female parts of a flower are involved in the formation of fruit in a process called fertilisation

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