Parts of a Plant
- The different parts of a plant are the roots, stem, leaves, flowers and fruits.
- The roots of a plant are mostly seen underground and look brown in colour.
- The tiny thread-like structures over the roots are the root hair. The tip of the root is called the root cap.
- Roots are of two types - tap root and fibrous roots.
- Some plants have a primary root that grows more or less straight down into the soil, and is tapered towards the end. This main root is called the tap root.
- There are many smaller roots that branch out from the tap root, called lateral roots.
- Examples of plants with tap roots are hibiscus, carrot, turnip and sunflower.
- Some plants have many lateral roots that start from the base of the stem. These are called fibrous roots.
- Examples of plants with fibrous roots are banana, grass and onion.
- The roots hold the plant firmly in the soil, thereby serving as an anchor to the plant.
- One of the main functions of the roots is to absorb water and nutrients from the soil for the growth of the plant. Sometimes they also store sugars and carbohydrates.
- The stem holds the leaves, flowers and fruits in a plant.
- The vascular tissue inside the stem helps to transport water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves, and food from the leaves to the roots.
- Plants release excess water in the form of water vapour through minute openings in the leaves, called the stomata. This process is known as transpiration.
- The different parts of a flower include sepals, petals, stamen and pistil.
- The green leaf-like parts surrounding the bud are called the sepals.
- The brightly coloured parts of a flower are called the petals.
- The male part of a flower is called the stamen, and the female part is called the pistil.
- The male and female parts of a flower are involved in the formation of fruit in a process called fertilisation
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