Pronoun


Generally (but not always) pronouns stand for (pro + noun) or refer to a noun, an individual or individuals or thing or things (the pronoun's antecedent) whose identity is made clear earlier in the text. 

They say that eating beef is bad for you. 

They is a pronoun referring to someone.


KINDS OF PRONOUNS:
  • Personal
  • Demonstrative
  • Indefinite 
  • Relative 
  • Reflexive 
  • Intensive 
  • Interrogative
  • Reciprocal 

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns can also be characterized or distinguished by person. First person refers to the speaker(s) or writer(s) ("I" for singular, "we" for plural). Second person refers to the person or people being spoken or written to ("you" for both singular and plural). Third person refers to the person or people being spoken or written about ("he," "she," and "it" for singular, "they" for plural).


Demonstrative Pronouns


The family of demonstratives (this/that/these/those/such) can behave either as pronouns or as determiners. 

As pronouns, they identify or point to nouns. 

That is incredible! (referring to something you just saw) 
I will never forget this. (referring to a recent experience) 
Such is my belief. (referring to an explanation just made) 

Relative Pronouns 

The relative pronouns (who/whoever/which/that) relate groups of words to nouns or other pronouns (The student who studies hardest usually does the best.). The word who connects or relates the subject, student, to the verb within the dependent clause (studies)


Indefinite Pronouns 


The indefinite pronouns (everybody/anybody/somebody/all/each/every/some/none/one) do not substitute for specific nouns but function themselves as nouns (Everyone is wondering if any is left.) One of the chief difficulties we have with the indefinite pronouns lies in the fact that "everybody" feels as though it refers to more than one person, but it takes a singular verb. (Everybody is accounted for.) If you think of this word as meaning "every single body," the confusion usually disappears.


Intensive Pronouns 

The intensive pronouns (such as myself, yourself, herself, ourselves, themselves) consist of a personal pronoun plus self or selves and emphasize a noun. (I myself don't know the answer.) It is possible (but rather unusual) for an intensive pronoun to precede the noun it refers to. (Myself, I don't believe a word he says.) 


Reflexive Pronouns 

The reflexive pronouns (which have the same forms as the intensive pronouns) indicate that the sentence subject also receives the action of the verb. (Students whocheat on this quiz are only hurting themselves. You paid yourself a million dollars? She encouraged herself to do well.) What this means is that whenever there is a reflexive pronoun in a sentence there must be a person to whom that pronoun can "reflect."

Interrogative Pronouns 

The interrogative pronouns (who/which/what) introduce questions. (What is that? Who will help me? Which do you prefer?) Which is generally used with more specific reference than what.


Reciprocal Pronouns 


The reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another. They are convenient forms for combining ideas. If Bob gave Alicia a book for Christmas and Alicia gave Bob a book for Christmas, we can say that they gave each other books (or that they gave books to each other).

My mother and I give each other a hard time. 
Reciprocal pronouns can also take possessive forms: 
They borrowed each other's ideas. 
The scientists in this lab often use one another's equipment.



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