In order to change a singular noun to its plural form in English, you usually add "s". For example, the plural of book is books. The plural of table is tables. These are regular plurals.

But there are many nouns which don't follow this rule. For example the plural of fish is fish. The plural of tooth is teeth. These are irregular plurals


Regular plurals:

Form:
Add "s" to the noun:
Noun
+ S
While many plural nouns follow this rule, the spelling sometimes differ.

Examples:
Singular
Plural
snake
snakes
window
windows
box
boxes
boy
boys
lorry
lorries
potato
potatoes
knife
knives

Spelling of plurals:
The plural form of most nouns is created simply by adding the letter "s".
·         more than one snake = snakes
·         more than one girl = girls
·         more than one window = windows
Nouns that end in -ch, x, s, z or s-like sounds, however, will require an es for the plural:
·         more than one witch = witches
·         more than one box = boxes
·         more than one gas = gases
·         more than one bus = buses
·         more than one kiss = kisses
Nouns that end in a vowel + y take the letter s:
·         more than one boy = boys
·         more than one way = ways
Nouns that end in a consonant + y drop the y and take ies:
·         more tha one baby = babies
·         more than one lorry = lorries
A lot of nouns that end in o take es in the plural:
·         more than potato = potatoes
·         more than one hero = heroes

o becomes oes
echo
echoes
embargo
embargoes
hero
heroes
potato
potatoes
tomato
tomatoes
torpedo
torpedoes
veto
vetoes

Some nouns ending in o break the above rule and get os in the plural form:
o becomes os
auto
autos
kangaroo
kangaroos
kilo
kilos
memo
memos
photo
photos
piano
pianos
pimento
pimentos
pro
pros
solo
solos
soprano
sopranos
studio
studios
tattoo
tattoos
video
videos
zoo
zoos

Other nouns ending in o get either os or oes i the plural forms:
o becomes os or oes
buffalo
buffalos/buffaloes
cargo
cargos/cargoes
halo
halos/haloes
mosquito
mosquitos/mosquitoes
motto
mottos/mottoes
no
nos/noes
tornado
tornados/tornadoes
volcano
volcanos/volcanoes
zero
zeros/zeroes

Plurals of nouns that end in f or fe usually change the f sound to a v sound and add s or -es.
·         more than one knife = knives
·         more than one leaf = leaves
·         more than one hoof = hooves
·         more than one life = lives
·         more than one self = selves
·         more than one elf = elves

Irregular plurals:
There are several nouns that have irregular plural forms.
Singular
Plural
fish
fish
sheep
sheep
barracks
barracks
foot
feet
tooth
teeth
goose
geese
tooth
teeth
goose
geese
child
children
man
men
woman
women
person
people
mouse
mice
Plurals formed in this way are sometimes called irregular plurals or mutated (or mutating) plurals.
·         more than one child = children
·         more than one woman = women
·         more than one man = men
·         more than one person = people
·         more than one goose = geese
·         more than one mouse = mice
·         more than one barracks = barracks
·         more than one deer = deer

Other irregular plural forms include the following:
Some foreign nouns retain their plural. (Note that some of them adapted the s of the English plural form!)
Singular
Foreign plural
English plural
alga
algae
amoeba
amoebae
amoebas
antenna
antennae
antennas
formula
formulae
formulas
larva
larvae
nebula
nebulae
nebulas
vertebra
vertebrae

Nouns ending in us get ai or the s of the English plural:
Singular
Foreign plural
English plural
corpus
corpora
genus
genera
alumnus
alumni
bacillus
bacilli
cactus
cacti
cactuses
focus
foci
fungus
fungi
funguses
nucleus
nuclei
octopus
octopi
octopuses
radius
radii
stimulus
stimuli
syllabus
syllabi
syllabuses
terminus
termini

Nouns ending in um get ai or the s of the English plural:
Singular
Foreign plural
English plural
addendum
addenda
bacterium
bacteria
curriculum
curricula
curriculums
datum
data
erratum
errata
medium
media
memorandum
memoranda
memorandums
ovum
ova
stratum
strata
symposium
symposia
symposiums

Nouns ending in ex or ix get ices or get the s of the English plural: 
Singular
Foreign plural 
English plural
apex
apices
apexes
appendix
appendices
appendixes
cervix
cervices
cervixes
index
indices
indexes
matrix
matrices
matrixes
vortex
vortices

Nouns ending in is becoming es in plural:
Singular
Plural form
analysis
analyses
axis
axes
basis
bases
crisis
crises
diagnosis
diagnoses
emphasis
emphases
hypothesis
hypotheses
neurosis
neuroses
oasis
oases
parenthesis
parentheses
synopsis
synopses
thesis
theses

Nouns ending in -on becoming -a: 



singular
plural
criterion
criteria
phenomenon
phenomena
automaton
automata

Nouns that are always singular:
A handful of nouns appear to be plural in form but take a singular verb:
·         The news is bad.
·         Gymnastics is fun to watch.
·         Economics/mathematics/statistics is said to be difficult.
Some nouns never take the s of the plural and are always singular:
·         your luggage / baggage is so heavy
·         I'd like to buy new furniture for the house
·         you can find more information in our website.



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