All numbers, including

**whole numbers, integers, fractions and decimal numbers**, can be written in the**numerator-denominator form**. A rational number is a number that can be written in the form*p/**q, where**p and**q are integers and**q ≠ 0. .*

*The***denominator**of a rational number**can never be zero**. A rational number is positive if its numerator and denominator are both either positive integers or negative integers. . If either the numerator or the denominator of a rational number is a negative integer, then the rational number is called a**negative rational number**.

*The rational number zero is neither negative nor positive.*

*On the number line:*- Positive rational numbers are represented to the right of 0.
- Negative rational numbers are represented to the left of 0.

By multiplying or dividing both the numerator and the denominator of a rational number by the same non-zero integer, we can get another rational number that is equivalent to the given rational number.

A rational number is said to be in its

**standard form**if its numerator and denominator have no common factor other than 1, and its denominator is a positive integer.

To reduce a rational number to its

**standard form**, divide its numerator and denominator by their**Highest Common Factor (HCF).**To find the standard form of a rational number with a negative integer as the denominator, divide its numerator and denominator by their HCF with a minus sign.
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