Integrated Skills:  Various skills that are required to carry on an experiment successfully or to solve a problem are known as integrated Skills.These skills are:

(i) Identifying and Controlling Variables:

In science we study the effect of one variable over the other.For example if you want to study the effect of 'Praise' on the 'achievement' of your students. The first variable i.e. 'Praise' will be called the Independent Variable and the effect of this variable; on other variable i.e. "Achievement" which is called the Dependent Variable will be seen. There are other factors also which might effect the achievement but you are not studying their effect on the achievement such as age of the students, intelligence, physical comforts, fatigue etc. These variables have to be controlled or kept constant.

Integrated Science Process Skills, Science Process Skills, Free CTET Exam Notes, Teaching Of Science Notes, CTET 2015 Exam Notes, TEACHING OF Science Study Material, CTET PDF NOTES DOWNLOAD, Science PEDAGOGY Notes (ii) Defining Operationally: 

Whatever information individuals acquire through experiments:, observations or experiences, they use it to describe in meaningful statement is the phenomenon,, object or event etc. For example "The solubility of a substance in a given solution increases with the  increase in temperature of the solution."

(iii.)Forming Hypothesis: 

We have already discussed the meaning and importance of prediction. Statements of predictions are also called the Hypotheses. It denotes the conditions in which future happenings are expected. As these statements mention the conditions for prediction, they are said to be more formal and controlled scientifically. Hypothesis makes a guess about the expected outcome of an experiment.

(iv) Experimenting: 

Experiments are conducted to test hypothesis. Designing and conducting an experiment requires the use of many skills. During the testing of a hypothesis we study the effect of independent variable on the dependent variable keeping other variables under control.

(v) Tabulation or Graphing: 

During the experiment the investigator collects information in an organised way. The information can be represented clearly in the form of tables or graphs.

(vi) Interpreting Data: 

The information received or the knowledge gained through the study of data help the investigator to test the hypothesis or form conclusions. You can study the table and conclude that amount of solute dissolved in one litre of solution increases with rise in temperature or the volume of a gas decreases with rise in pressure.


In order to solve a problem pupils are required to observe, collect and analyse the data in order to form meaningful conclusions. All the above mentioned processes help the learner to discover meaningful information and form/take decisions.
The systematic and organised use of the above mentioned process skills help people understand and adjust to their physical and social environment. It is through these processes that they learn to unfold the mysteries of nature which in turn help them to use nature according to their own needs and requirements. 

According to Dr. D.S. Kothari - "to learn science is to do science, there is no other way of learning science.' Science is a systematic process of learning".

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