Process and processing are the words we often use in our day-to-day conversations. In teaching profession alone  the word 'Process' is extensively used  such as admission process, teaching process, learning process, process of socialization, examination process, and evaluation process etc.

Process may involve the following activities :
  • steps to accomplish a task
  • ways of doing work
  • planning various stage of an activity, and
  • establishing systematic steps for gathering and retaining information.
In science, the way of gathering information, thinking, measuring, solving a problem or in other words the ways of learning science are called the 'processes of science'.
Let ;us reconsider Aman's observation leading to his statement 'All insects have three pairs of limbs'. First of all, Aman :
  •  became aware of various insects in and around his house
  • saw some ants carrying sugar cubes
  • was curious about their activity.
Then, he: 
  • by chance observes the limbs/legs and count them
  • intentionally observes housefly, mosquito and other small insects in and outside home
  • observes common characteristics of insects especially limbs
  • draws inferences, and
  • makes a statement.

Basic Processes or Basic Processing Skills

Aman has employed two basic skills here : -

Process Of Science,  Basic Processing Skills,  Free CTET Exam Notes, Teaching Of Science Notes, CTET 2015 Exam Notes, TEACHING OF Science Study Material, CTET PDF NOTES DOWNLOAD, Science PEDAGOGY Notes

1. Observation and
2. Inferences.

To apply processes, certain skills are required. These skills are called processing skills. These are as follows.


You must be clear by now that observation is not just 'seeing' or 'looking at', or 'glancing' or 'viewing'. During the time we are awake, we 'see' or 'look at' various objects and phenomenon around us. The regularity in viewing these phenomena or objects catches our attention becomes observation.

Read Full article of processing skills --> HERE
  • Observation
  • Classification
  • Communication
  • Measurement
  • Estimations
  • Prediction
  • Generalization.


The abilities of Prediction, Explanation and Generalization together forrn the process of making Inferences.
The quality of knowledge acquired by an individual depends upon the quality of basic skills applied. Sharp observation will lead to sound and accurate knowledge.
As the mind grows with age, the complexities of the processes also increase. Several skills functions together and help the child to interact and adjust in his physical and social environment. Integration or skills help an individual to answer Why, When and How type of questions. Many skills are required to solve a problem and to carry on an experiment. These skills are:

Integrated Skills

Various skills that are required to carry on an experiment successfully or to solve a problem are known as integrated Skills.

When an individual is confronted with a problem, then he looks for the nature of the problem and its relationship with the whole system. Suppose you want to dissolve some solid substance into a given amount of liquid to nlake a solution, and you wonder as to how much solid could be dissolved in the liquid. Now the process of making the solution depends upon the nature of the solute, nature of the solvent and the temperature. These are the variables of the system. Here system can ,be designated as the 'solution'. 
Skills are:
  • Identifying and Controlling Variables
  • Defining Operationally
  • Forming Hypothesis
  • Experimenting:
  • Tabulation or Graphing
  • Interpreting Data
  • Investigating
We have already discussed the skills requires in our post 'Integrates Science Process Skills'. It would be good if you read it---> HERE for better understanding.

The systematic and organised use of the above mentioned process skills help people understand and adjust to their physical and social environment. It is through these processes that they learn to unfold the mysteries of nature which in turn help them to use nature according to their own needs and requirements. According to Dr. D.S. Kothari - "to learn science is to do science, there is no other way of learning science.' Science is a systematic process of learning"

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