Topic  : Concept of development and its relationship with learning


Development is the process of quantitative and qualitative growth of the child and the emergence and differentiation of capabilities over time. It is the function of maturity as well as interaction with the environment.

ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT


1.Physical : Physical development is about the physique, i.e. height and weight.

Must Read: Physical development

2.Cognitive (mental) Development:

Cognition means to perceive, comprehend, conceive or simply to know. Cognitive development would then mean the growth and capability of knowing, comprehending, or understanding over time, facilitated both by maturity and interaction with the environment. Cognition involves the ability to construct mental images involving thought, reasoning, memory and language. Mental images are constructed by an individual as the surroundings (the world around) are observed, understood and internalised as a mental process. Thus every
individual has a unique model based on a unique process of observation. This is how a leaner learns about the world around him/ her.


3.Emotional : Emotional development is about different emotions at various stages and how they grow over a period of time.

Must Read: Emotional Development

4. Language Development:

Children learn to understand language before they can speak it. Only a few minutes after birth, infants can determine where sounds are coming from. Neonates can also tell the difference between sounds, based on frequency, intensity, duration and tempo.
Towards the end of the first year, babies can distinguish among individual sounds of their language. They can tell the difference between pairs of words that differ only in initial sound (like cat and bat) Infants follow stages of pre linguistic speech before the first real word which involves sequentially undifferentiated crying, differentiated crying, cooing, babbling, lallation or imperfect imitation, or imitation of the sounds of others, expressive jargon, etc. However, real communication involves the ability to speak, and, the ability to understand what others say. Thus it entails four major developmental tasks comprehension, pronouncing legibly, building expressive vocabulary and meaningful sentences.

5.Moral Development:

Moral development deals with the development of ethics or ethical norms, values, the conscience and the ability to judge an act morally. Children cannot make moral judgments until they achieve a certain level of cognitive maturity . According to Piaget, children go through two stages in a rigid way, while the second stage is characterized by moral flexibility. Children’s conception of rules, intentionality, punishment and justice move from rigid to flexible thinking. This change is a sign of cognitive development.

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