Equality in the Indian Democracy : Ncert / Cbse Solutions & Revision Notes
The Article 15 in Indian Constitution guarantees equality to all the citizens of the country. The article also says that no individual should be discriminated on the basis of race, caste, religion, place of birth or gender. The Indian Constitution also abolishes untouchability, ensuring that every person gets equal access to every public place.
The Indian constitution also gives all the adults the right to vote irrespective of their education, caste, wealth and religion. This is known as the universal adult franchise. The government in order to implement equality in the country, implements laws and schemes or programmes to improve the lives of people.
Though the Indian Constitution guarantees equality to all the Indians, religion, economic background gender and caste play an important role in the society. However, India is not the only country struggling for equality. In spite of the government implementing various measures to bring equality, several communities are still struggling for their dignity.Equality can only be achieved when one changes his attitude and starts treating every individual with respect and dignity.
Must Read: Diversity in India
CBSE NCERT Class VII (7th) | Civics Social Studies
CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer
Q1 Define the following-
a) Constitution- This is a document that lays down the basic rules and regulations for people and the government in the country to follow.
b) Dalit- It is a term that the so-called lower castes use to address themselves. Dalit means ‘broken’ and by using this word, lower castes are pointing to how they were, and continue to be, seriously discriminated against.
c) Equality- It may be defined as equal treatment towards all human beings by the state.
d) Inequality- It means that some opportunity that is available to one person and not to another.
Q2. What is Universal Adult Franchise? How is it important?
It means that all adult (those who are 18 and above) citizens have the right to vote irrespective of their social or economic backgrounds. It is important because-
a) It ensures Political equality among all.
b) It makes the government more accountable towards people.
c) It promotes equality because everyone has one vote with equal value.
Q3 State the ways through which government has tried to implement the equality given in the Indian Constitution.
The two ways in which the government has tried to implement the equality that is guaranteed in the Constitution is
1. Through laws - There are several laws in India that protect every person’s right to be treated equally.
2. Through government programmes or schemes to help disadvantaged communities- The government has set up several schemes to improve the lives of communities and individuals who have been treated unequally for several centuries. These schemes are to ensure greater opportunity for people who have not had this in the past.
Q4 Explain the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, religion or national origin. It also stated that all schools would be open to African–American children and that they would no longer have to attend separate schools specially set up for them.
Rosa Parks was an African–American woman whose refusal to give up her seat on a bus to a white man on 1 December 1955 lead to huge agitation against the unequal ways in which African–Americans were treated and this came to be known as the Civil Rights Movement.
Q5 State the various provisions mentioned in the constitution to promote equality in India.
The various provisions mentioned in the constitution to promote equality in India are-
1. Every person is equal before the law. What this means is that every person, from the President of the country to a domestic worker, has to obey the same laws.
2. No discrimination- No person can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, race, and caste, place of birth or whether they are female or male.
3. Access to public places- Every person has access to all public places including playgrounds, hotels, shops and markets. All persons can use publicly available wells, roads and bathing ghats.
4. Untouchability has been abolished.
Q6 Write a note on- mid day meal scheme.
This refers to the programme introduced in all government elementary schools to provide children with cooked lunch. Tamil Nadu was the first state in India to introduce this scheme.
This programme has had many positive effects.
· More poor children have begun enrolling and regularly attending school.
· Their mothers, who earlier had to interrupt their work to feed their children at home during the day, now no longer need to do so.
· This programme has also helped reduce caste prejudices because both lower and upper caste children in the school eat this meal together, and in quite a few places, Dalit women have been employed to cook the meal.
· It also helps reduce the hunger of poor students who often come to school and cannot concentrate because their stomachs are empty.
Q7 How can change happen in the society in regard to inequality practised in the society?
It is only when people begin to believe that no one is inferior, and that every person deserves to be treated with dignity, that present attitudes can change.
Even though people are aware that discrimination is against the law, they continue to treat people unequally, on the basis of their caste, religion, disability, economic status and because they are women.