CTET Exam Notes : Child Development and Pedagogy (CDP) 

in Hindi Medium 

Topic  : Critical perspective of the construct of Intelligence


MEASUREMENT OF INTELLIGENCE BY INTELLIGENCE TESTS

You know that to measure something we need a unit a measure. For example to measure the length we use a scale, weighing machine for measuring weight etc. To know how much of anything exists, we have to measure it. So in your mind question may arise to know how much intelligence you have? Do you know how to measure it? Can you measure it through kilogram, kilometer, litre, scale or other measure like this? No, to measure the amount of intelligence, there is no such one specific measuring scale. Because intelligence is not an object, it is not observable, but it is a relative mental ability. Though it can not be measured directly though any single unit of measure, still if can be measured. Let us discuss how intelligence can also be measured. Al of you may be very curious to know if.

It is important to note that intelligence is inferred from a variety of elements i.e. behaviour and speed of doing things correctly etc. In ancient India intelligence was measured through conversation, physical features, gestures, gait, speech, changes in the eye and facial expression. But today, many intelligence tests are widely which primarily measures abstract intelligence as exemplified by competence in dealing with symbols in a meaningful way. A number of tests measuring social intelligence as well as mechanical intelligence have also been developed. An intelligence test is an objective and a standard measure.

General (or abstract) Intelligence test


The general intelligence test was first designed by psychologists for use in schools. These were intended to serve primarily as tools in determining a child’s ability to carry on schools work, to use symbols and numbers quickly and accurately and to read with comprehension. It is for this reason that tests designed to measure abstract abilities came to be known as general intelligence tests. Another purpose of designing such tests was to measure the abilities that distinguishes the bright child from the dull. Since this distinction is significant for schools and vocational success and also for social adjustment, the intelligence test is an important tool in psychology.

Types of Intelligence Test


MEASUREMENT OF INTELLIGENCE BY INTELLIGENCE TESTS , General (or abstract) Intelligence test, Types of Intelligence Test, CDP Notes, CTET Exam Notes, Child Development & Pedagogy Study Material
The general intelligence tests have been classified into three groups. Individual, group and performance tests.
  •  Individual Test
  •   Group Test
  •   Performance Test

Individual Test:


The individual intelligence test is administered to only one individual at a time. A trained psychologist is expected to administer the test for a definite period of time and interpret the result. These tests cover age group from 2 years to 18 years. These are (i0 The Binet simon tests, (ii) Revised tests by Terman, (iii) Mental scholastic tests of Burt and (d) Weschler test.

Group Test:

The group intelligence tests are meant for assessing the intelligence of a large number of individuals in one sitting. There are two kinds of group intelligence tests verbal and nonverabal.

Verbal:

The verbal group test requires an individuals to read out certain problems and write out solutions of these problems.

Non-Verbal:

The non-verbal group tests presents similar problems as the verbal test but in a different way. The problems are presented in the form of pictures, diagrams, puzzles and mazes. If does not require the individual to read or write, but only to be able to make a mark with a pencil.

Performance Test

Performance tests are designed to test problem solving ability using certain objects such as pictures and blocks, instead of words. These tests are specially useful with young children, illiterates, persons with speech defects and persons who do not have proficiency in language. Some of the famous tests are (i) Koh’s Block design test (ii) The cube construction tests and (iii) The Pass Along tests.

Group tests had their birth in America when the intelligence of the recruits who joined the army in the first world war was to be calculated. These are (i) The Army Alpha and Beta test (ii) Terman’s group tests, (iii) Out self administrative tests.

Intelligence tests consists of different types of questions to test the intelligence of individual. These questions are based on the following factors.

Vocabulary
The extent of an individual’s vocabulary is one of the most reliable indices of his intelligence. It can be tested through arranging words in difficult order or giving synonym or antonym of a word.

Verbal analogies:
In this section question are asked like Branch is to a tree as brook is to river.

Sentence completion :
India has ………….. states is one of the example of this type of questions.

Arithmetic reasoning:

Simple arithmetical sum increasing in difficulty is included in the test.

Number series:

A series of number is given and asked what will be the next?
For example 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 ……..?

Comprehension:

It consists of questions designed to measure general understanding. It includes questions such as why are coins made of metal?

Digit Span:

For testing on memory, digits are spoken and the subject is asked to respect them in the same or reverse order. For example if the examiner says 8, 4, 3 the subject is to say 3, 4, 8.


Similarities:
The subject is asked to describe the way in which certain objects are similar. In way cotton and silk are a like?

General Information:
If consists of questions from everyday life. Kinds  of questions asked. How many inches are there in a foot?

Picture arrangement:

Each item consists of a collection of cartoon like drawings which make a story when arranged in proper order.

Picture completion:

This test consists of a series of pictures which are presented to the subject one at a time. An important part is missing from each picture and must be identified by the subject.

Block design:

The subject must arrange a collection of colored cubes in such a way that they reproduce certain printed design.

Object assembly test.

Three jigsaw type puzzles are presented to the subject one at a time and in order of increasing difficulty.

Digit symbol test:

The subject is required to match each one of series of printed digits with an appropriate symbol, using a prescribed code.

These are different verbal and non-verbal factors on which questions are framed to test the intelligence of the individual. But this process of determining the intelligence is a complicated process. It involves a comparison and establishment of a relationship between chronological age (C. A.) and mental age (M. A.). This relationship is expressed by the term I. Q. (Intelligent Quotient) Now we will discuss the concept of age, chronological age & intelligent quotient.

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