CTET Exam Notes : Child Development and Pedagogy (CDP)
Teachers teach and help the learners to learn. The learning that takes place is assessed or evaluated not only for the learner's benefit but also for the teacher to evaluate his /her own work. At the end of a lesson or a group of lessons, the teacher needs to get feedback on what the learner has achieved, as a result of the teacher's efforts and also, indirectly to assess his/her own achievement as a teacher. This feedback comes with the help of a tool, generally an achievement test. An achievement test is designed to evaluate a unit during the teaching-learning process.
PURPOSE OF ACHIEVEMENT TESTS
Achievement tests are universally used in the classroom mainly for the following purposes :
1. To measure whether students possess the pre-requisite skills needed to succeed in any unit or whether the students have achieved the objective of the planned instruction.
2. To monitor students' learning and to provide ongoing feedback to both students and teachers during the teaching-learning process.
3. To identify the students' learning difficulties- whether persistent or recurring.
4. .To assign grades.
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
There are mainly three kinds of questions - essay, short answer and objective type.
The essay type questions are still commonly used tools of evaluation, despite the increasingly wider applicability of the short answer and objective type questions. There are certain outcome of learning (e.g. organising, summarising, integrating ideas and expressing in one's own way) which cannot be satisfactorily measured through objective type tests. The importance of essay tests lies in the measurement of such instructional outcomes.
An essay type question may give full freedom to the students to write any number of pages. The required response may vary in length. Limit may be imposed by restricting the content and the length of student's response in the statement of a question. Restricted response type items are quite useful for testing learning outcomes which require interpretation, application of outcomes which are specific and clearly defined in nature. Such types of questions help to reduce subjectivity in marking, which is considered to he the major drawback of essay tests.
In extended response type questions full freedom is given to the student to exercise his-her competence and demonstrate the best he/she possesses, of course, pertaining to the area of the subject. There is freedom to select, organise, integrate, evaluate and express in any way one likes or deems appropriate. Such questions, although useful for measuring global type of abilities, are not suitable for measuring specific learning outcomes, besides being difficult to grade.
Short Answer Questions
Short answer questions generally require exact answers and, although taking many forms, they share the following distinctive features.
i) They usually take less than five minutes to read and answer, many take less than a minute.
ii) They include some guidance on the extent of the answer reacquired c.g. the size of answer, space or specific instruction such as "In not more than 20 words ..."
iii) The answer is supplied by the pupil, not pre-selected as in objective questions.
They can be grouped into two broad categories :
a) extended answer
b) insert and completion
Extended Answer Type
The extended answer version includes questions which reacquire pupils to write a brief description, draw a map, make a list, perform a calculation, translate a sentence, write down a definition or formula and so on. They are probably the commonest form of questions used in schools and are frequently used by examining Boards. They arc deceptively easy to set and usually difficult to mark with any degree of speed and consistency.
The commonest form of completion questions is one where the pupil is required to add one or two words to complete an incomplete statement correctly. Where the missing words are in the body of the statement to be completed it is usually called an insert type. A completion type is where the words are required at the end of the statement. The use of insert or completion questions is not, however, limited to written statements and can be used.to prepare extremely good questions based on incomplete maps, drawings, diagrams, formulae, calculations, and the like.
Objective Type Questions
What is an objective question? Simply, an objective question is one which is free from any subjective bias - either from the tester or the marker. Confusingly, in educational jargon, the adjective' objective' usually means 'not subjective' while the noun'objective' usually means an. aim, a goal, target or intention. This sub-section is not about course objectives-aims, intended learning outcomes, etc. -but about testing which is free from subjective elements. There can only be one right or objective answer to an objective question. Objective questions can take various forms, but invariably they require brief answers with little or no writing. A simple tick or a quick oral answer may be enough.
The most common used objective type question by teachers as part of their day-to-day teaching is simple recall. The teacher asks a short question, expecting a quick one-word answer or a simple statement completed.
A Multiple choice-item consists of three pans -a stem, a key and a number of dis tractors. The key and dis tractors together are often referred to as options. The stem can be either a direct question or an incomplete statement; the key is the correct answer and the dis tractors are plausible but incorrect answers.
As its name implies, the basic true-false item requires the pupil to select either 'true' or 'false' as the answer. It is usually written in the form of a statement which the pupil must decide as being either 'me' or 'false' or alternatively choose between other work pairs relating to the statement such as greater than-less than, plus-minus, often-rarely, same different, 'faster slower' and so on. It is the possibilities offered by these other pairs which make the true false form a particularly useful one.
The matching block format consists of two lists and the pupil is required to correlate correctly one or more entries from one list with one or more entries from the other so that correct matching by elimination is not possible.
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