CBSE / NCERT Revision Notes of Class 6 Social ScienceWhat Books and Burials Tell Us

Oldest Books in the World : Chapter Summary

One of the oldest books in the world, Rig Veda is a part of the four sacred texts of Hinduism called Veda. There are four Vedas in all namely Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and the Atharva Veda.
The Rig Veda was composed around 3,500 years ago and comprises 1,028 hymns, called ‘Suktas’ which means well-said in English.
Rig Veda was initially learned orally as the printed of the same came only 200 years ago. The hymns are to praise God and Goddesses, chiefly Agni, god of fire, Indra, warrior God and Soma, god representing sacred potion.

Rig Veda is written in Vedic Sanskrit, which belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. The hymns are written like dialogues between humans or humans and elements of nature. Apart from gods, Rig Veda also comprises prayers for horses, cattle and children, especially sons.

Horses are mentioned in the hymns as they were used in the battlefields by being attached to the chariots. The battles were fought to capture cattle, land, water and people to serve as slaves. The army concept was not prevalent then, so all men fought in the battles.

Describing People : Chapter Summary

People are usually described on the basis of the place they belong to, the language they speak and the work they do. The Rig Veda too composed by Aryans describes people according to their occupation.

Priests who performed rituals and taught Vedas were called ‘Brahmins’. Kings or Warriors who fought for protecting their people and capturing land and cattle, were collectively known as Kshatriyas.

However, the individual kings were called Rajas; Rajas living in the Aryan times were hugely different from those living in the later periods. A Raja had no capital cities, armies or palaces in the Aryan time and was elected by the people.

Get to know about What Books and Burials Tell Us free CBSE NCERT Notes, Oldest Books in the World, Describing People, Megaliths, Inamgaon, Chapter Summary What Books and Burials Tell Us : CBSE / NCERT Revision Notes of Class 6 Social Science.

The people who worked as traders, farmers, artisans and crafts persons were known as ‘Vaishyas’. The Rig Veda mentions of ‘Shudras’, people who did tedious tasks and served the Brahmins, Kshatriyas and the Vaishyas.

The Shudras included Dasas or Dasyus, the original inhabitants of the Indian Subcontinent before the arrival of the Aryans. The Dasas or Dasyus were called so, as they were considered as opponents and differed in culture and language. The Aryans later captured them in wars and considered their personal property.

The Rig Veda uses the word ‘Kula’ to indicate individual families. The word ‘Vish’ is used to indicate a clan formed by various kulas while the word ‘Jana’ is used to describe tribes formed by bringing together many Vish

Megaliths : Chapter Summary

 Megaliths were huge stones erected to mark burial sites, used by people three thousand years back. This practice was common south India, Deccan, Kashmir and the north-east. The burial sites are both above and underground. Many distinctive articles were found buried with the body by the archaeologists in some megalithic burials.

Such remains indicate the buried people were herders and farmers as burying dad with food and equipment meant the entry in the next life. The type of burial reflects the status of the buried person. Brahmagiri and Adichanallur are some megalithic burial sites found in India.

Cist, is a type of megalith which is an arrangement of large stone slabs in a box-like structure used mainly for the underground megaliths.

Often there would be an opening in the centre, called the port-hole leading to the underground burial site. Many megalith burials have produced distinctive pots called Black and Red ware.

Certain megalith burials have revealed multiple skeletons, which indicate that the megalith people buried the family members in the same grave at times. The bodies were put in the existing graves through the port-holes and placed next to the skeletons.

Archaeologists have also found iron tools, weapons, horse skeletons, horse equipment, ornaments of gold and stone in various megalith burials. This shows that the ancient people believed in treating the dead with respect and providing them with enough tools and equipment to succeed in the afterlife..

Inamgaon : Chapter Summary

Inamgaon, located on the banks of river Ghod, a tributary of Bhima, was discovered in the year 1967-68. This city existed around 3,600 and 2,700 years back but continues to attract the archaeologists.

Archaeologists have found that farming was a vital occupation of the people of Imangaon. They have also found bones of various animals, most of which bear cut marks. This shows that the men then herded animals for food. 

The inhabitants of Inamgoan had a special burial ritual. They buried the dead in straight position in oval shaped pits, with the head pointing towards north while legs to the south.

The people also buried vessels with the dead, which are believed to contain food and water for survival of the dead on his journey to the next world.

The archaeologists study the skeleton to determine the gender of the dead. The skeleton of a child is smaller than that of an adult.

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