CBSE NCERT Class VI (6th) | History Social Studies (Our Pasts-1) Unit Lesson : 7 

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Q1. Who was the founder of Buddhism? What was his original name? 

Siddhartha was the founder of Buddhism. His original name was Gautama.

Q2. Where did Buddha gain enlightenment?

Buddha gained enlightenment under under a peepal tree at Bodh Gaya in Bihar.

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Q3. Where did Buddha teach for the first time? 

At Sarnath, near Varanasi.

Q4. Where did Buddha rest in peace? 

Buddha passed away at Kusinara.

Q5. What was considered permanent in the universe by the thinkers?

CBSE NCERT Class VI (6th) | History Social Studies (Our Pasts-1) Unit Lesson : 7 , New Questions and Ideas, CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer, CBSE NCERT Solution.Many of the thinkers felt that there was something permanent in the universe that would last even after death. They described this as the atman or the individual soul and the brahman or the universal soul. They believed that ultimately, both the atman and the brahman were one.

Q6. Why did Buddha use Prakrit language for teaching?

The Buddha taught in the language of the ordinary people, Prakrit, so that everybody could understand his message.

Q7. Why was it difficult for farmers to follow Jainism?

It was difficult for farmers to follow Jainism because they had to kill insects to protect their crops, which was not allowed in Jainism.

Q8. What was Sangha?

Sangha was an association of those who left their homes, as both the Mahavira and the Buddha felt that only those who left their homes could gain true knowledge. So they arranged for them to stay together in the Sangha.

Q9. Who all people joined the Sangha?

Sangha could be joined by any one, brahmins, kshatriyas, merchants, labourers, barbers, courtesans and slaves.

Q10. Name the book where rules made for the Buddhist Sangha were written down? 

The rules made for the Buddhist Sangha were written down in a book called the Vinaya Pitaka.

Q11. What are Viharas?

Many monks and nuns, in the later years felt the need for more permanent shelters and so monasteries were built. These were known as Viharas.

Q12. How the earlier viharas were build?

The earlier viharas were made of wood, and then of brick. Some were even in caves that were dug out in hills, especially in western India.

Q13. Who were Bhikkhus? What were their functions?

Men and women who joined the Sangha led simple lives. They meditated for most of the time, and went to cities and villages to beg for food during fixed hours. That is why they were known as bhikkhus (the Prakrit word for beggar) and bhikkhunis. They performed the following functions-

1. They taught others, and helped one another.
2. They also held meetings to settle any quarrels that took place within the sangha.

Q14. What are Upanishads? Who wrote them?

These were part of the later Vedic texts. Upanishad literally means ‘approaching and sitting near’ and the texts contain conversations between teachers and students. Often, ideas were presented through simple dialogues.
Most Upanishadic thinkers were men, especially brahmins and rajas. Occasionally, there is mention of women thinkers also.

Q15. Who was Mahavira?

He was most famous thinker of the Jainas, Vardhamana Mahavira, also spread his message around 2500 years ago. He was a kshatriya prince of the Lichchhavis, a group that was part of the Vajji Sangha.

At the age of thirty, he left home and went to live in a forest. For twelve years he led a hard and lonely life, at the end of which he attained enlightenment.

Q16. Name the places to which Jainism spread?

Over hundreds of years, Jainism spread to different parts of north India, and to Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

Q17. How were the viharas managed and maintained?

Very often, a rich merchant, or a landowner, or the king donated the land on which the vihara was built. The local people came with gifts of food, clothing and medicines for the monks and nuns. In return, the monks taught the people.

Q18. Who were Jainas? State some features of their lives? The followers of Mahavira, were known as Jainas.

1. They had to lead very simple lives, begging for food.
2. They had to be absolutely honest, and were especially asked not to steal.
3. They had to observe celibacy.
4. And men had to give up everything, including their clothes.

Q19. What were the teachings of Buddha? The Buddha taught that-

• Life is full of suffering and unhappiness. This is caused because we have cravings and desires (which often cannot be fulfilled).
• Sometimes, even if we get what we want, we are not satisfied, and want even more (or want other things). The Buddha described this as thirst or tanha. He taught that this constant craving could be removed by following moderation in everything.
• He also taught people to be kind, and to respect the lives of others, including animals.
• He believed that the results of our actions (called karma), whether good or bad, affect us both in this life and the next.
• He also encouraged people to think for themselves rather than to simply accept what he said.

Q20. What were the teachings of Mahavira?

  • · He taught a simple doctrine: men and women who wished to know the truth must leave their homes.
  • · They must follow very strictly the rules of ahimsa, which means not hurting or killing living beings. “All beings,” said Mahavira “long to live. To all things life is dear.”
  • · Followers of Mahavira, who were known as Jainas, had to lead very simple lives, begging for food.
  • · They had to be absolutely honest, and were especially asked not to steal. Also, they had to observe celibacy. And men had to give up everything, including their clothes.
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