On the Trail of the Earliest People : CBSE / NCERT Social Science Solution for Class 6
Life of Nomads: Chapter Summary
Two million years ago, people roamed the forests, hunted and gathered their food supplies. Their life was governed by the tropical climate of India. Hunting instilled in them special skills like quickness, alertness and skillful co-ordination.
Gathering food on the other hand, gave people the knowledge of distinguishing between edible and poisonous plants and also to pick regions for travelling where they can grow crops in the respective season.
There were reasons people had to lead a nomadic life like no knowledge of agriculture, exhaustion of food supplies available in the area they live in, search of water and prey, to meet relatives and due to the regional differences in the climatic and soil conditions which affected the plant growth.
Tools Used by Early Man: Chapter Summary
In the ancient times, stone was the primary substance of making tools and weapons and Stone Age is the period when stone was widely used. The Stone Age is divided into three parts on the basis of the improvements made to the tools and weapon by man i.e. Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic Ages.
Palaeolithic Age means old Stone Age and is derived from the Greek words ‘Palaeo’, meaning old and ‘lithos’, meaning stone. This age started around 2 million years ago and extended till around twelve thousand years ago. The tools and weapons during this age were large, crude and unpolished.
Following the Palaeolithic Age was the Mesolithic Age, which in Greek means the Middle Stone Age. This age lasted only around two thousand years i.e. from twelve thousand years back to ten thousand years back. The Mesolithic tools were polished and chipped to be sharper, harder and stronger as compared to the predecessors. By this time, man started attaching bones and wooden handles to create new tools like sickles and axes.
The middle stone age was followed by the Neolithic Age, which lasted for around five thousand years i.e. from ten thousand years ago to five thousand years ago. Neolithic Age means New Stone Age and the tools in this age were extremely sharp. The two techniques used for making tools in this age were Stone on Stone and Pressure Flaking.
Fire was discovered during this period only and proved highly beneficial. Ancient man used fire for light and warmth, helping in cooking meat and keeping away the wild animals by keeping in front of their caves.
Selecting a Home : Chapter Summary
An archaeological site refers to a place where one finds material remains of the past. Such sites are found buried deep under mud, modern cities, sand and even water. Bhimbetka is one such example.
Ancient people preferred living in caves for protection from wind, rain, sun and wild animals. They also preferred staying at a place which has a water source and plenty of availability of both plants and animals and good quality stones.
Rock paintings as the name says are the paintings which are found on the walls of caves or rock shelters used by the ancient people. These paintings help in reflecting on the incidents of the lives of ancient people.
Archaeological sites are classified in three categories i.e. places where ancient people lived over a lengthy period of time and made tools are known as habitation-cum-factory sites, places used only for living purposes are called habitation sites while places where only tools were made are called factory sites.
People started living in huts made of leaves and twigs in the beginning of the Mesolithic Age. This increased the grassland covered area, thereby increasing the population of grass-eating animals. This is how these animals started being domesticated.