A Shirt in the Market : Ncert / Cbse Solutions & Revision Notes
Life Story of a Shirt
Farmers collect the pure white cotton which is exposed when the balls in cotton plants burst open and sell it to the trader who lends them money for cultivation. Owing to the interest rate being high, the farmers sell the cotton bales to the trader at low prices and thereby overcoming their debts.
The process of the production of cotton to the production is a chain and involves farmers, traders, merchants, weavers, exporters, factory workers and retailers. The trader employs laborers to make cotton yarns from the raw cotton bales. This cotton yarn is taken to a big cloth market which is visited by various traders, weavers and merchants.
The cotton yarn is sold by the trader to a cloth merchant, who further gives the yarn to the weavers, to weave the desired fabric from the same. The weavers usually prefer an arrangement, called the putting out system. In this arrangement, the merchant provides raw material and the weavers will give him the finished product. However, the weavers are paid quite less and they don’t earn profits owing to the high debts for purchasing expensive looms.
The cloth is then exported in the foreign markets by the exporter. In this buying and selling chain not everyone makes equal profit. Majority of the profit is made by the retailer only. The exporter in turn makes reasonable profits followed by the merchant and the trader who earn a bit less. However, it is the famers, weavers and the workers in the factory who get paid the least share of the profit.
In order to provide fair wages to all and help the poor workers, Indian Government has formed Cooperative societies. For instance, the weavers’ cooperative helps make the weavers’ independent where the role of merchant is reduced and they hence get a fair price of their cloth.
CBSE NCERT Class VII (7th) | Social Studies | Social and Political Life
Chapter : A Shirt in the Market
CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer
Question.1: How do exporters cut down the cost of manufacturing garments?
Answer: Exporters face numerous pressures from the buyers such as low price at high quality and timely delivery. Faced with such pressures try to cut costs. They get the maximum work out of the workers at the lowest possible wages. In this way they maximize their own profits, while cutting down cost of manufacturing (production).
Question.2: Why did the trader pay Swapna a low price?
Answer: Swapna had taken a loan from the trader under the condition to sell her cotton to him. He misused his power and exploited her due to lack of her bargaining power and her poor conditions and paid Swapna a low price.
Question.3: Where do you think the large farmers would sell their cotton? How is their situation different from Swapna?
Answer: Large farmers would sell their cotton to the Kurnool cotton market at higher prices. Their situation is quite different from Swapna because unlike them, Swapna is a small poor farmer, who needs to borrow money for cultivation and at the other time of exigencies. She had promised to sell cotton to the trader as she had taken loan from him and she had no bargaining power. Unlike Swapna large farmers don’t depend on others for money to start cultivation and matters.
Question.4: Who are the gainers in the market?
Does everyone gain equally from the chain of a market of cotton (shirt)?
Answer: There is a chain of market which links the producer of cotton to the buyer at the supermarket. Buying and selling takes place at every step in the chain. Starting from the farmer, weaver, worker, factories, wholesalers, retailers to consumers, all are involved in this process of buying and selling. Although they all gain from this but, everyone does not benefit equally from this business. Despite having toiled very hard some people like small farmers, weavers, workers earn very little from this market. It is usually the rich and the powerful people, who have money and own factories, large shops, large land-holdings or such establishments gain the maximum from this market.
Question.5: Establish relationship between the market and the equality?
What is a chain of market? Do you think that everyone gains equally in the market?
Write a short note on market and equality with giving examples of gainers in the chain of market?
Answer: There is a chain of market which links the producer like that of cotton, to the buyer at the super-market. Starting from the farmer, weaver, worker, factories, wholesalers, retailers to customers, all are involved in this process of buying and selling. Although they all gain in this process but everyone does not benefit equally in the market. The foreign business persons made huge profits. Compared to this, the garment exporters made moderate profits. While some people like small farmers (like Swapna), weavers, workers earn very little or hardly enough to cover their day-to-day needs. The profits made by the merchants or traders are some where in between.
Thus, we saw that everyone does not gain equally in the market. In democracy everybody has right to earn a fair wage for his work. Whether it is Kanta or Swapna, if families don’t earn enough then they can not think themselves as equal to others and can not live with dignity. The market offers people opportunities to work and earn fairly. But it is the people, who are rich, powerful and have large establishments take away the maximum benefit. And the poor people, because of their dependence on the rich, are exploited in the market.
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