CBSE NCERT Class VII (7th) | Social Studies | History
Chapter : The Mughal Empire
CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer
Q1.Who was the first Mughal Emperor?
Q2. Explain the term ‘Bigot’?
Q3 What are Dogma?
A statement or an interpretation declared as authoritative with the expectation that it would be followed without question.
Must Read:The Mughal Empire - Chapter Summary
Q4. Name the Deccan Sultanates?
Berar, Malwa, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, Golconda were the Deccan Sultanates
Q5. Who was Abul Fazl?
Abul Fazl was one of Akbar’s close friends and courtiers wrote a three volume history of Akbar’s reign titled, Akbar Nama.
Q6. What was the main source of income for the Mughal rulers?
The main source of income to Mughal rulers was tax on the produce of the peasantry.
Q7. How did the Mughal Empire establish itself in India?
In 1526 Babur defeated the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at Panipat and captured Delhi and Agra.
Q8. What was the Mughal tradition of succession?
They did not believe in the rule of Primogeniture, where the eldest son inherited the father’s estate. In fact they followed a custom of coparcener inheritance or a division of inheritance amongst all the sons.
Q9. What was Zabt? Where was it prevalent?
Akbar’s revenue minister Todar Mal, carried out a careful survey of crop yields prices and areas cultivated for a 10 year period. On the basis of this data tax was fixed on each crop in cash. Each province was divided into revenue circles with its own revenue rates for individual crops. This revenue system is known as Zabt. It was prevalent in areas where Mughal administration could survey the land and could very careful accounts. This was not possible in provinces such as Gujarat and Bengal.
Q10. Trace the lineage of the Mughals?
The Mughals were the descendants of two great lineages of rulers. From their mother’s side, they were the descendents of Genghis Khan, ruler of Mongol tribes, China and Central Asia. From their father’s side they were the successors of Timur, ruler of Iran, Iraq and modern day Turkey. However the Mughals did not like to be called Mughals or Mongols. This was because Genghis Khan’s memory was associated with the massacre of innumerable people.
Q11. How was Mughal relations with other rulers?
When Mughals became powerful many rulers joined them voluntarily. Rajputs are a good example of this. Many of them got their daughters married into Mughal families and received high positions. But many resisted as well. Mughals campaigned constantly against rulers who refused to accept the mughal authority. e.g. Sisodiya Rajputs
Once defeated, however, they were honourably treated by the Mughals, given their lands back as their assignments.
They were maintaining a careful balance defeating but not humiliating their opponents.
Q12. Explain ‘Sulh-i-kul’ and its advantages.
It means ‘Universal Peace’. This is the idea of tolerance which did not discriminate between the people of different religions in his realm. Instead it focused on a system of ethics- honesty, peace and justice. This principle of governance was also followed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan as well.
Akbar ordered one of his close friends and courtiers, Abul Fazl, to write a history of his reign. Abul Fazl wrote a three volume history of Akbar’s reign titled, Akbar Nama. The first volume dealt with Akbar’s ancestors and the second volume recorded the events of Akbar’s reign. The third volume is the Ain-I Akbari which deals with Akbar’s administration, household, army, the revenues and geography of his empire.
Q14. How is ‘Ain-i-Akbari’ a useful document for the historians?
The broad features of the administration were laid by Abul Fazl in his book, the Akbar name in particular its last volume the Ain-i-Akbari deals with Akbar’s administration, household, army, the revenues and the geography of his empire. It also provides rich details about the traditions and the cultures of the people living in India. It also provides details about crops, yields, prices, wages etc.
Q15. Write a note on Akbar’s provincial administration.
a) The empire was divided into provinces called subas, governed by a subadar who carried out both political and military functions.
b) Each province also had a financial officer or diwan.
c) For the maintenance of peace and order in his province, the subadar was supported by other officers such as the military paymaster (bakhshi), the minister in charge of religious and charitable patronage (sadr), military commanders (faujdars) and the town police commander (kotwal).
Q16. Describe Akbar’s administration with reference to Mansabdars and Jagirdars?
Those who joined Mughal services were called Mansabdars. The term Mansabdar refers to an individual who holds a mansab, meaning a position or a rank. It was a grading system used by the Mughals to fix:
1. Military responsibilities
Rank and salary were determined by a numerical value called Zat. The higher the zat the more prestigious was the noble’s position in the court and larger his salary.
The mansabdars got their salaries as revenue assignments called Jagirs which were somewhat like Iqtas. But unlike iqtadars, most mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their Jagirs. They only had the right to the revenue of their assignments which were collected for them by their servants while the mansabdars themselves served in some other parts of the country. In Akbar’s reign these Jagirs were carefully assessed so that revenues were roughly equal to the salaries of mansabdars.
Q17 What were the military responsibilities of Mansabdars?
The mansabdar’s military responsibilities required him to maintain a specific number of sawars or cavalrymen.
The mansabdar brought his cavalrymen for review, got them registered, their horses branded and then received the money to pay them as salaries.
Q18 What was the relationship between mansabdar and jagir?
• Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs.
• But most mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their jagirs. They only had rights to the revenue of their assignments which was collected for them by their servants while the mansabdars themselves served in some other part of the country.
• In Akbar’s reign these jagirs were carefully assessed so that their revenues were roughly equal to the salary of the mansadar.
Q19. Who were Zamindars? What was their function?
The main source of income available to Mughal rulers was tax on the produce of the peasantry. In most places, peasants paid taxes through the rural elites, that is, the headman or the local chieftain. The Mughals used one term – zamindars – to describe all intermediaries, whether they were local headmen of villages or powerful chieftains.
Q20.What was the plight of peasantry during Aurangzeb’s reign?
During the Aurangzeb’s reign there was a huge increase in the number of mansabdars. This meant that there was a long wait before they received a Jagir. This and other factors created a shortage in the number of jagirs.
As a result, many jagirdars tried to extract as much revenue as possible while they had a jagir.
Aurangzeb was unable to control these developments in the last years of his reign and peasantry therefore suffered tremendously.
Q21. ‘The inequalities during the Shah Jahan’s reign were glaring’. Comment
• International visitors described India as the fabled land of wealth. But these same visitors were also appalled the state of poverty that existed side by side with the great opulence.
• Documents from the 20th year of Shah Jahan’s inform us that the highest ranking mansabdars were merely 5.6% of total number the mansabdars but
they received 61.5% of the total estimated revenue of the empire as salaries for themselves and their troopers.
· The Mughal emperors and their mansabdars spent a great deal of their income on salaries and goods. This expenditure benefited the artisans and peasantry who supplied them with goods and produce. But the scale of revenue collection left very little for the investment in the hands of primary producers- the peasants and the artisans.
· The poorest amongst them lived from hand to mouth and they could hardly consider investing in additional resources- tools and supplies- to increase productivity.
· The wealthier peasantry and artisanal groups, the merchants and the bankers profited in this economic world.