CBSE NCERT Class VII (7th) | Social Studies | History
Chapter : Rulers And Buildings
CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer
Q1. Define the following:
1. Superstructure: The part of a building above the ground floor.
2. Trabeate / Corbelled: When roofs, windows and doors were made by placing a horizontal beam of wood or stone slabs across two vertical columns, the style of architecture is called Trabeate / Corbelled.
3. Arcuate: The weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was sometimes carried by the arches. This architectural form was called Arcuate.
4. Chahar Bagh: These were the layouts placed between the rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels.
5. Pietra Dura: Coloured, hard stones placed in depressions carved into marble or sandstone creating beautiful ornate patterns.
Must Read:Rulers And Buildings - Chapter Summary
Q2. What kind of construction activities were taken up between 8th and 18th centuries?
Ans. Kings and officers built two kinds of structures:
1. The first were forts, palaces, garden residences and tombs-safe, protected and grandiose places.
2. The second were structures meant for public activity including temples, mosques, tanks, wells and bazaars.
Q3. Why were kings getting the structures constructed for their people?
Ans. Kings were expected to take care of their subjects and by making structures for their use and comfort, rulers hoped to win their praise.
Q4. Which technological developments took place in the contruction activities from the 12th century?
Ans. Following were the activities:
1. The weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was sometimes carried by the arches. This architectural style was called Arcuate.
2. Limestone cement was increasingly used in construction.
Ans. This was very high quality cement, which when mixed with stone chips hardened into concrete. This made the construction of large structures easier and faster.
Q6. Why were temples and mosques constructed?
Ans. Temples and mosques were beautifully constructed because they were places of worship. These were also meant to demonstrate the power, wealth and devotion of the patron.
Q7. Why were the kings of past adopting the names of Gods?
Ans. The kings of past were adopting the names of Gods because it was auspicious and they wanted to appear like Gods.
Q8. How did Persian court chronicles describe Sultan?
Ans. Muslim Sultans did not claim to be incarnations of God but Persian court chronicles describe Sultan as the shadow of God.
Q9. Why were rulers interested in transforming their capitals to cultural centers?
Ans. Rulers offered patronage to the learned and pious and tried to transfer their capitals and cities into great cultural centers that brought fame to their rule.
Q10. Who constructed Hauz-i-Sultani and why?
Ans. Sultan Iltutmish constructed Hauz-i-sultani or the “Kings reservoir” for winning universal respect by making the precious water available to the people.
Q11. Why were temples and mosques attacked and destroyed by other kings?
Ans. Temples were built by the kings to demonstrate their power, wealth and devotion to God. So, it is not surprising that when they attacked one another’s kingdoms they often targeted these buildings.
In middle ages most rulers displayed their political abilities and military success by attacking and looting the places of worship of defeated rulers.
Q12. Which Mughal rulers were interested in architecture?
Ans. Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
Q13. Which were the areas of interest of Shah Jahan?
Ans. Shah Jahan was personally interested in Literature, Art and Architecture.
Q14. Why were Chahar Baghs given this name?
Ans. The formal gardens that were placed with rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels were called Chahr Baghs. They were so called because of their symmetrical division into quarters.
Q15. Which architectural developments took place during the Akbar’s reign?
Ans. There were several important architectural innovations during Akbar’s reign like construction of tombs, central towering domes and the tall gateways.
Q16. Write a short note on the architectural development and construction activities that took place during Shah Jahan’s reign?
Ans. Following were the activities that took place during Shah Jahan’s reign:
1. It was during his reign that the different elements of Mughal architecture were fused together. His reign witnessed a huge amount of construction activity especially in Agra and Delhi.
2. The ceremonial halls of public and private audience were carefully planned .
3. His audience halls were specially constructed to resemble a mosque. The pedestal on which his throne was placed was frequently described as the qibla, the direction faced by Muslims at prayer, since everybody faced that direction when court was in session.
4. He also constructed Red Fort in Delhi in which behind the emperor’s throne there was a series of pietra dura inlays.
5. He adapted the river-front garden in the layout of the Taj Mahal, the grandest architectural accomplishment of his reign.
Q17. How did the Mughal court suggest that everyone – the rich or poor, the powerful or the weak- received justice equally from the Emperor?
Ans. Shah Jahan’s audience halls were specially constructed to resemble a mosque. The pedestal in which his throne was placed was frequently described as qibla, the direction faced by muslims at prayer, since everybody faced that direction when the court was in session. The idea of the king as the representative of the God on earth was suggested by these architectural features. The construction of Shah Jahan’s audience halls aimed to communicate that king’s justice would treat the high and the low as equals where all could live in harmony.
Q18. What led to the cross fertilization of artistic forms and architectural styles in between the 8th and 18th century?
Ans. The creation of large empires that brought different regions under one rule helped in the cross fertilization and sharing of artistic forms and architectural styles.