CTET 2015 Exam Notes : Child Development and Pedagogy (CDP) 


Child as a Problem Solver and scientific investigator’:


Children are natural problem solvers, eager to make sense of their world. Supportive adults and stimulating environments can help them develop this important .

PROBLEM SOLVING

Problem solving is part and parcel of our daily life. Every day we solve a number of problems ranging from simple to complex. Some problems take little time where as some take much time to solve. We look for alternative solutions if do not get the right kind of resources to solve the problem in hand. In the case of solving any type of problem our thinking becomes directed and focused and we try to use all there sources, both internal (mind) and external (support and help of others) to arrive at the right and appropriate decision. For example if you want to score good marks in an exam, you study hard, take the help of teachers, friends, and parents and finally you score good marks. Thus problem solving is directed thinking focused towards dealing with a specific problem. This thinking has three elements: the problem, the goal, and the steps to reach the goal. There are two methods which are used prominently in problem solving. These are- “Means-end-analysis” and “Algorithms”. In the case of Means-end-analysis a specific step-by-step procedure is followed for solving certain types of problems. In the case of ‘heuristics’ the individual is free to go for any kind of possible rules or ideas to reach the solution. It is also called rule of thumb.
Problem Solving and Mental Set: Sometimes we use a particular strategy/technique to solve a problem but we may or may not succeed in our effort to solve the problem. This creates a set to approach future problems that are incountered by a person. The set continues even if the problem is different. Despite this, we use the same strategy/ technique when ever we come across the same problem and again fail to reach the solution. Such phenomenon in problem solving is called mental set. A mental set is a tendency on the part of an individual to respond to a new problem in the same manner that he or she has used earlier to solve a problem. Previous success with a particular rule produces a kind of mental rigidity/fixedness/set, which hinders the process of generating new ideas to solve a new problem. A mental set inhibits or affects the quality of our mental activities. However, in solving our real life problems we often rely on past learning and experience with similar or related problems.

Child as a Problem Solver and scientific investigator’, PROBLEM SOLVING Method, Steps for Solving Problems, Improving Problem Solving Skills in Childrens, CDP Notes, CTET 2015 Exam Notes, Child Development & Pedagogy Study MaterialSteps for Solving Problems

Defining the problem 
Working on the problem 
Coming to conclusion 
Carrying out the conclusion 
Learning. 

Improving Problem Solving Skills in Childrens : 


The range of teaching-and-learning activities in the classroom runs from memorization and repetition all the way to solving problems and thinking creatively.

In our classrooms, we can look for ways to address this entire range. For example, we can:

Use blocks, Models, and other objects to teach mathematics, which taps into children’s fine motor skills and their visual understanding;

Invite children to talk about (or write about) ideas and process in mathematics, Which links their verbal thinking to understanding mathematics concepts,

Ask children to draw pictures for the stories that we read to them, which connects their visual thinking to the words and events in the story; and

Guide children in making maps of the area around school, which links their experience of movement in space to visual and mathematical concepts. When children survey their community, identify problems within it, and use their skills cooperatively to suggest solutions to these problems, they are learning how to apply what they learn in school. A part from imparting good education, this process helps the community to understand the work of the school, and they may be more motivated to support the work of teachers.

For your classroom to be fully inclusive, you need to make sure that the curriculum is accessible to and relevant for all children in terms of what you teach (content), how you teach it, how the children learn best (process), and how it relates to the environment in which the children are living and learning.
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