CTET 2015 Exam Notes : Child Development and Pedagogy
CTET 2015 Exam Notes : Child Development and Pedagogy
PERSONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING LEARNING
The process of learning is influenced by a variety of personal factors. A thorough knowledge of these factors will prove very helpful for teachers and parents in understanding and guiding their children's learning. Some of the personal factors that influence the learning process can be classified as under- sensation and perception, fatigue and boredom, maturation, emotional condition, needs, interests, motivation. attention. intelligence. aptitude. attitude. etc.
Let us discuss the important personal factors in the following sub-sections.
Sensation and Perception
Apart from the general health of the students, sensation and perception are the psychological factors which help in learning. Sensation is at the core of perception. There are five sense organs i.e., skin, ears, tongue, eyes and nose. These sense organs are the gateways of knowledge and help in perception of various stimuli in the environment. Any defect in any of the sense organs will affect learning and hence acquisition of knowledge.
Fatigue and Boredom
The difference between the two is that fatigue is mental or physical tiredness which decreases in efficiency and competency to work. Boredom, on the other hand. is a lack of desire or an aversion. to work. Such an aversion makes one feel fatigued without being actually fatigued. Studying seldom causes fatigue. It is mainly boredom which, besides causing the impression of fatigue, decreases student efficiency in learning.
Age and Maturation
Leaning is directly dependent upon age and maturation. No learning can take place unless individual is matured enough to learn. Some children can learn better at earlier age while others take more time to learn the same content.
Desirable emotional conditions enhance the quality and speed of learning. Happiness, joy and satisfaction are always favorable for any type of learning. Adverse emotional conditions, on the other hand, hinder learning. Many studies have established the fact that emotional strain, stress. tensions, disturbances, etc., are extremely inimical to scholastic pursuits.
A need is the lack of something which, if provided, would facilitate child's usual behaviour. The lack of something is experienced by the child. The child then tries to perform that activity which culminates in the satisfaction of the need. Thus, the needs are associated with goals. Among human beings, the needs are relatively permanent tendencies which seek satisfaction in achieving certain specific goals. When these goals are achieved, the particular need is satisfied or met for the time being, but it recurs sooner or later and energises further activity.
Various types of interests of the students can be exploited to facilitate their learning. The interests during early infancy are mostly limited and short lived. As the child grows older his interests diversify and stabilize. You, a school teacher, should have thorough knowledge of children·s interests. You cari eliminate much drudgery, monotony and boredom from the school work if you make your instruction lively and stimulating and arouse student interest in it.
Once the students· interest is aroused in an activity you should ex-pend more effort on it. No
learning can be achieved without proper expenditure of effort on it.
Motivation is the heart of the learning process. It generates the will in an individual to do something. Adequate motivation not only engages the student in an activity which results in learning, but also sustains and directs learning. Two types of motivation are commonly recognised. These are : intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic motivation arises when the resolution of tension is to be found in mastering the learning task itself: the material learned provides its own reward. For example, the student who studies the construction of model aeroplanes diligently so that he can make a model. is experiencing a kind of intrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic motivation occurs when a student pursues a learning task, but for reasons" which arc external. If a student engages in construction of model aeroplanes because he thinks it will please his father, who is an ex-pilot rather than because of intrinsic motivation.
Intelligence as expressed by an I.Q.'score on an intelligence test is positively related to learning Generally, students with higher I.Q. learn rapidly. However_ higher I.Q. in itself is no guarantee for rapid learning, since other factors such as needs. interest motivation. etc.. of the students and the methods used for learning arc also important.
A student who possesses appropriate aptitude for a particular subject of study or skill will learn better and retain it for a longer time. On the other hand: he will require relatively longer time to study a subject for which he lacks natural aptitude. He is liable to forget it soon besides feeling bored and unhappy all the time while learning it. Hence it is extremely desirable to analyse the aptitude of students before prescribed courses of study for them.
The learning process is also influenced considerably by the attitude of the student. If he is alert. attentive and interested in the material to be learnt he is bound to have a favourable attitude towards it.
LEARNING: CONCEPT, NATURE, CHARACTERISTICS, PROCESS
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING LEARNING
Environmental influences begin since the time of the conception or the child in the womb or the mother. Mother's mental, physical and emotional conditions influence the development of foetus in the womb. The external enviromncnt starts from the time of birth of the child. (external environment) refers to the surroundings which prevail in home. school and locality. At these places, the child interacts with members of the family, teachers. classmates or peers and neighbours and establishes relationship with them. The relationship with the members of the society, and the surroundings may affect the development of the child and also the way he learns. Some of the environmental factors arc discussed as follows:
Surroundings : Natural, Social and Cultural
As the title of the sub-section indicates, we shall discuss here natural. social and Cultural environment the child interacts with and get influenced. Natural surrounding covers the climatic and atmospheric condition. These conditions affect learning directly. It has been found that high temperature and humidity reduces mental efficiency. For a limited time, humidity and high temperature can be tolerated but prolonged humidity and high temperature become unbearable and decrease mental efficiency .
Social surrounding includes especially the environment of home. school and locality Physical conditions at home such as large family, small family, insufficient ventilation, improper lighting, uncomfortable temperature, noisy home environment due to use of radio, TV, etc .. noisy neighbourhood, constant visits by friends or relatives, etc., influence the intellectual learning of the student.
Cultural demands and social expectations also influence learning. The spirit of culture is reflected in its social and educational institutions. Children's learning, therefore, is greatly determined by the demands and expectations of their culture.
Relationship with Teachers, Parents and Peers
The teacher is an important constituent in the instructional process. She/he plays an important role in shaping the behaviour of students. The way he teaches and manages the students has an effect on their learning.
Relationship with parents plays a vital role in the learning process of the student. If the child-parents relationship is based on mutual respect and faith, it can provide the child a congenial atmosphere which in turn can facilitate his/her learning. A distorted and unhealthy environment, on the other hand, adversely affects the learning of the student.
A healthy peer group relationship also plays an important role in Learning, Student-student relationship in the classroom, school, society, etc., create a particular type of emotional climate. The climate solely depends upon their relationships. A sound relationships provides a tension free environment to the student to learn more and to compete in the class. If the relationship among peers is not good, it adversely affects their learning.
Media Influence on Learning
Media has been considered an important component of transmitting information. Media can be divided into two broad categories - print and non-print media. Print media refers to texts or printed materials. It is economical and has traditionally been used for pedagogical purposes.
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