CTET 2015 EXAM NOTES
Field Work / Excursions
Field work / Excursions is an important instructional method in social studies, It means taking the class into the "real" world. It is conducted in real life situation's where they observe a phenomenon, collect the relevant data, process and analyse the data and arrive at conclusions.
Field work should be related to an ongoing unit of work. For example, while teaching the means of production, the teacher can take students to a nearby factory where students observe the various processes involved in the production of goods. Field work / Excursions provides students first- hand knowledge and enables them to see how a number of skills and processes are integrated. The experiences which students get from field work contribute towards effective and permanent learning.
The Requisites of Travels and Excursions
While taking out the students for travels and excursions the teacher should keep the following points in mind.
(i) Discipline should be maintained while the students are going out. It can be done easily if the teacher continues to direct students properly and provide them an opportunity to see things in the proper perspective. If the students get interested in their observation they shall not be undisciplined.
(ii) While the students are being taken out to excursions they be made comfortable. For this they should be lodged properly and given proper food. If the students are not pysically comfortable their mind shall not work properly and it shall not be possible for them to acquire knowledge in the proper manner.
(iii) The teacher should direct the students in proper manner. He should explain the importance of each and everything that the students have seen. He may also explain which things are used for map drawing and which things are useful for charts etc.
(iv) After the excursions or travels the teacher should point out the particular chapter that may have bearing on the excursion or the travel. Such a reading will strengthen the experience and give a solid foundation to the knowledge.
(v) Students should invariably be asked and encouraged to carry a note book with them while they go out on excursions. They should also be encouraged to note down important things. Such things shall be useful in the classroom and proper study of the subject.
Organisation of Excursions
For organisation of successful excursion the following points are kept in mind:
- The excursion should be carefully planned and well in time. Such planning is done by teacher-in-charge with active participation of students.
- It is worth consideration that the journey is not too long, tiresome etc.
- A list of items to be carried by each student be got typed and distributed amongst the students. A broad programme of excursion is also included in it.
- Prior arrangements/approval etc., for places to be visited, conveyance, meals etc. are made.
- During excursion students be given enough freedom for self-study and observation so that they could derive reasonable entertainment and pleasure from these activities
- Committees are formed to look after various organisations work such as boarding, loading, photography conveyance etc.
- Proper accounts are maintained for the expenses incurred during excursions.
- Teacher should try to draw maximum educational advantage out of the excursion.
- Every excursion should have a definite follow up programme.
- Proper evaluation is made at the end of each excursion.
Some Suggested Excursions
(a) Excursions to Industrial Centres
Inspite of his best efforts even the best teacher will find it quite difficult to explain in detail the actual working of various industries m India. Teacher can give only theoretical expressions which cannot become real and lasting They can become real and lasting only if the students see the proper working of various departments of the Industry. During excursions to industrial centres students may be shown the storage places of raw materials, various processes through which the raw material passes, the final product produced while making such observations the students be explained the working of each section by some competent person. It will be quite useful and will benefit the students and enrich their experiences about working of industries in India.
Excursions to places of geographical importance should be arranged to explain to students the need and importance of locality and regions of the country and their valuable contribution in national as well as international interests, with special reference to its impact on trade, commerce and industry of the country.
In this regard Prof. E. F. Macnee has rightly remarked:
"It is essential that the foundations of Geographical knowledge shall be laid in the field. No amount of reading from books can make up for a practical knowledge gained by looking at the earth which the child is studying. It follows that from the very early stages expedition should form part of the Geography course. In the lower schools there is usually plenty of time and many simple excursions can be made."
During such an excursion teacher should make an effort to show to students the various sources of supply of raw materials and also explain the significant contribution and impact of goods, exported to other countries.
Such an excursion will help the students to get an idea of the exact location of dams, projects, industries, ports and harbours etc. It also helps the students to properly assess resources of our country and the students become more aware of availability of plenty of materials inside the country and their contributions on the revenue of the country as also about foreign exchange. Students also get an idea of how a particular region contributes in solving the problem of unemployment.
(c) Visits to Museum
It is no exaggeration to say that National museums and laboratories are excellent centres for giving real knowledge to students in various areas of learning. Planetoriums such as Birla Planetorium at Calcutta provide good knowledge about heavenly bodies like the sun, the moon and other planets. Such knowledge is more stable and permanent.
Some of the important advantage of excursions is as under:
(i) They provide direct source of knowledge and acquaint the student with first hand information.
(ii) They provide an opportunity to the student for development of his aesthetic sense.
(iii) By such excursion students become interested in the exploration of their environment.
(iv) They help to develop in students a love for nature and to acquaint them with the real happiness in the outside world.
(v) It helps in development of power of observations, exploration, judgment and drawing inferences, problem solving ability of students.
(vi) It helps in developing qualities of resourcefulness, self- confidence, initiative and leadership amongst students.
(vii) It helps in developing cooperative attitude and various others
(viii) It helps in proper utilisation of leisure.
(ix) It motivates the students for self-study and self-activity.
(x) It helps in the development of creative faculties of the students.
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