CTET 2015 EXAM NOTES
Laboratory ( Experiment ) Method
In laboratory method students perform laboratory experiments by their own hands individually or in small groups, under the supervision and guidance of their science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology) teacher. So here students are more active and involved as compared to lecture - demonstration method, where teacher was performing experiments and most of the students in the class were just passive observers.
The role of the teacher when using this method in teaching science is that of a facilitator. The teacher goes to different individuals or small groups, observes them what they are doing, corrects them if they are doing something wrong, and he is always available to students when they really need him for any guidance. Unless students perform experiments themselves, they will never get to know what science really is. In this method they get an opportunity to do experiments individually or in small groups.
Generally lab experiments are of five kinds:
2. Experiments to find numerical results.
3. Experiments to produce something such as preparation of gases or biological slides.
4. Experiments to verify experiments carried out by other scientists like verification of Ohm's law.
5. Original work like investigatory science projects or open ended experiments.
In our science courses there are usually the first four types of experiments. Presently little importance has also been given by CBSE to the 5th type-investigatory science project at senior secondary level.
When teaching science by laboratory method, the following objectives should be kept in mind.
1. to develop manipulative skills
2. to arouse and maintain interest in science.
3. to encourage accurate observations and careful recording
4. to make biological, chemical and physical phenomena more real through actual experience
5. to train students in science processes
6. to give training in problem solving
7. to verify facts and principles already taught in theory
8. to give training in open ended experiments, scientific method and investigatory science projects
How to Use this Method?
In Our schools at secondary (ix - x) and senior secondary (xi - xii) stage, students go to science laboratories to do practical work. Usually in every school there are three science laboratories -- Physics, Chemistry and Biology. For laboratory work two continuous periods (of about 30 minutes each) are given. At secondary stage students go to laboratory work once a week. At senior secondary
stage students go to laboratory work twice a week in every subject. Generally students work in groups of about 20. So the first step to use laboratory method in teaching science, is to divide the students into groups, and make the laboratory time table in such a way that each group get equal number of periods for practical work.
Whether you have good laboratory facilities or poor, you will have to make some adaptations to make: your laboratory really fit for teaching science by laboratory method. So the second step to use laboratory method in teaching science, is to follow some guidelines to make this method feasible and successful, like:
1. Equipment must be accessible to the students when needed
(a) waiting time should be minimum.
(b) material should be placed in such a manner that they can be easily found by students.
2. There should never be shortage of equipment and material needed for practical work.
The Merits and Demerits of Laboratory Method of Teaching Science are as follows:
Merits of Laboratory Methods:
Following kinds of merits can be accrue by making use of Laboratory Methods:
a. Through this method, a science teacher can provide various kinds of learning experiences\to the students, as a result of which information gained by them turns out to be of permanent kind.
b. In this method, individual differences and interest of all the students are taken into consideration, as a result of which, it is considered to be one of the psychological method of teaching. As more importance is assigned to students in this method, as a result of which, it is considered as child centred method. As no student is require to accept the beliefs and orders of the teacher and full freedom is provided to them to participate in the laboratory activities, as a result of which they begin to learn various information by doing works themselves.
c. Through this method, students learn to explore various things on their own. They also learn to verify various scientific facts and principles. Such students become able to solve out various kinds of problems arising in their life own their own, as they possess of high level of self-confidence.
d. As the students directly get indulged in the experimental functions and handle the various complex instruments themselves, thus various kinds of practical skills and proficiency get developed in them to considerable extent, with the help of which they prove to be successful in earning their livelihood in the future.
e. Through this method, an intimate relationship got developed in between the students and teacher, as students are required to acquire necessary guidance for performing practical work from the teacher while the teacher provides proper individual attention to them, by which all of them come closer to each other.
f. With this method, teacher can develop various good habits among the students because of which it is known for inculcation of good virtues among the students by a majority of experts. An important good habit which gets developed among the student is that they learn to perform their work on their own and independently. Not only this, they have to work while maintaining cooperation with other students also, as a result of which habit of team work gets developed in them. In addition of these, qualities of honesty, sincerity and truthfulness also get developed among the students through this method.
g. When students get success in their experimental work, then they attain a sense of achievement, which helps them in improving their performance to considerable extent in all spheres of life.
Demerits of Laboratory Methods:
These methods has some specific kind of limitations also, some of which are as follows:
a. There are some kinds of knowledge which cannot be verified through experiments, as a result of which this method has limited applicability. Not only this, generally it is found that teachers do not allow the students to make experiments independently, as it involves certain kind of risk of occurrence of accident.
b. As all the students get involved in experiment works because of which it becomes necessary to provide them with separate equipment's and other materials, but it is not possible for the teachers to do so as the main problem in our nation is shortage of resources. It is an important reason that why this method is used to limited extent in schools.
c. For procuring the essential materials and facilities, a huge amount of funds are required, because of which this method is considered to be expensive. It is not possible to make use of such method in schools of our nation, especially in government schools.
d. As every student in expected to learn by performing experiments, thus it is felt by some experts that this method expects too much from the students. In this method, students feel heavy burden on themselves as a result of which they do not get involved in the exploration and investigation processes with their fullest capacities.
e. Not only the students feel lot of burden on them, but teacher also have the same kind of tendency. Sometimes, teacher find it difficult to attend to the individual needs of the students, as they differ from each other to considerable extent. As a result of this, students get discouraged, as a result of which, it becomes very difficult for teacher to provide timely help and guidance to them.
f. This method can only be used by experienced and well qualified teacher otherwise, probabilities of getting failure can be increased.
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