CTET 2015 Exam Notes
NON PROJECTED A.V. AIDS (GRAPHIC AIDS):
It is a combination of graphic and pictorial material designed for the orderly and logical visualizing of relationships between key facts and ideas ex: comparisons, relative amounts developments, processes, classification or organization. It includes the following:
These visual symbols used for summarizing, comparing, contrasting or performing other services in explaining subject matter. A chart is a combination of pictorial, graphic, numerical or vertical material, which presents a clear summary.
Ø To visualize an item, it is otherwise difficult to explain only in words.
Ø To highlight important points.
Ø To provide outline for materials covered in presentation.
Ø To show continuity in process.
Ø For creating problems and stimulating thinking.
Ø For showing development of structure.
Types of charts:
Ø Narrative chart: Arrangement of facts and ideas for expressing the events in the process or development of a significant issue to its point of resolution or we can show an improvement over a period of years.
Ø The cause and effective chart: Arrangement of facts and ideas for expressing the relationship between rights and responsibilities or between a complex of conditions and change or conflict.
Ø The chain chart: arrangement of facts and ideas for expressing transitions or cycles.
Ø The evolution chart: facts and ideas for expressing changes in specific items from beginning data and its projections in to future.
Ø Strip tease chart:
- it enables speaker to present the information step by step
- It increases the interest and imagination of the audience.
- The information on the chart is covered with thin paper strips to which it has been applied either by wax, tape or sticky substance or pins.
- As the speaker wishes to visually reinforce a point with words or symbols, he removes the appropriate strip or paper.
- It produces interest.
- It increases learning and aids recall.
Ø Pull chart: it consists of written messages which are hidden by strips of thick paper. The message can be shown to the viewer, one after another by6 pulling out the concealing strips.
Ø Flow chart: diagrams used to show organizational elements or administrative or functional relationships. In this chart lines, rectangles, circles, are connected by lines showing the directional flow.
Ø Tabulation chart: it shows the schedule of an activity or of an individual ex: time-table of a class. These are very valuable aid in the teaching situation where breakdown of a fact or a statement is to be listed. Also it is a useful aid for showing points of comparison, distinction, and contrasts between two or more things. While making the table charts the following points must be kept in the mind.
The chart should be 50 X 75 cm or more in size.
The chart should be captioned in bold letters.
The vertical columns should be filled in short phrases rather than complete sentences.
Ø Flip chart: a set of charts related to specific topic have been tagged together and hang on a supporting stand. The individual charts will carry a series of related materials or messages in sequence. The silent points of specific topic will be presented.
Ø Pie chart: a circle will be drawn and divisions will be made into different sections, each section will be coded differently and code key will be given at right corner of the chart as legend. The circumference is divided into suitable sections. It is relevant for showing the component part
“Flash cards are a set of pictured paper cards of varying sizes that are flashed one by one in a logical sequence.”
1. To teach the students.
2. To give health education.
3. Useful for small group.
4. Used in group discussions.
- · The messages can be brief, simple line drawing or photographs, cartoons and the content will be written in few lines at the back of the each card.
- · 10” X 12” or 22” X 28” is commonly used size.
- · 10-12 cards for one talk can be used. It should not be less than 3 and more than 20.
- · Prepare a picture for each idea which will give visual impact to the idea.
- · The height of writing on the flash card is to be approximately 5cm for better visualization.
Using the flashcards:
For class room instruction, the flash card s is to be properly used. The following steps are used while displaying flash cards.
1. Give brief introduction about the lesson to students.
2. Give instructions to students about their actions while you flash the cards.
3. Flash the card in front of the class by holding it high with both your hands so that all the students can see it.
4. Let the student respond as per instructions already given.
5. Review the lesson by selectively using flash cards.
- · Flash cards can be used to introduce and present topics.
- · It can be used to apply information already gained by students to new situations
- · It can be used to review a topic.
- · Can be used for drill and practice in elementary classes
- · To develop the cognitive abilities of recognition and recall of students.
- · It can work as a useful supplementary aid and can be effectively used with other material.
- · Can not be used for a large group
- · Prone to get spoiled soon
- · Preparation is time consuming.
“Posters are the graphic aids with short quick and typical messages with attention capturing paintings.”
- · To provide general motivation.
- · To create an esthetic or atmospheric effect.
- · To communicate a more general idea. To thrust the message for leading to action.
- · For the class room and community.
Preparation and rules:
- · To do a special job.
- · To promote one point.
- · To support local demonstration.
- · Planned for specified people
- · Tell the message at single glance.
- · Use bold letters.
- · Use pleasing colors...
- · It should place, where people pass or gather.
Features of a good poster:
- · Brevity: message should be concise
- · Simplicity: message should be easily understandable
- · Idea: should base on single idea and it should be relevant.
- · Color: suitable color and combination should be used to make the poster attractive and eye catching.
- · Display: while displaying one should be sure to find a place where there is ad4equate light and where the larger population will see it.
- · It attracts attention.
- · It conveys the message very quickly.
- · It does not require a detailed study.
- · Good poster leads to action with good motivation
- · It can stand alone and is self explanatory.
- Poster does not always give enough information
- When a poster is seen for longer time it may not attractive. So it should be dynamic
Graphs are the visual teaching aids for presenting statistical data and contrasting the trends or changes of certain attributes.
Method of preparation:
- · Before making the bar chart makes a rough sketch of it in a note book.
- · For drawing the bar graph use the chart paper of 50x 72 cm size.
- · Use two different color shades for the two contrasting groups.
- · The bars should be equi-spaced.
- · Write the key to the bar graph in a box on the right hand side corner of the chart paper.
- · Numbers specifying the magnitude of the bars should be on the top on the bars.
- These are called as circle diagram. The data are presented thorough the sections of portions of a circle.
- · In determining the circumference of a circle we have to take in to consideration a quantity known as pie.
- · The surface area of a circle is to cover 360 degree.
- · The total frequencies or value us equated to 360 degree and then the angles corresponding to component parts are calculated.
- · After determining their angle, the required sectors in the circle are drawn.
The graphic presentation extends the scale horizontally along the length of bars. Each bar must be of the same width, height of the bar over a period represents the corresponding time of the variable. Graphs are available in 2 forms that is vertical and horizontal
To show the trends and relationships ex: single line shows the relation and the variation in the quantity. Quantitative data are plotted or when the data is continuous. The concepts are represented with the help of lines drawn either horizontally or vertically. The plotted points are connected to one another, instead of the base thus producing the curve.
It is an out standing method of graphic representation. Pictures are used for the expression of ideal; they are more attractive and easily understood. Vivid pictures will be used to create rapid association with the graphic message; each visual symbol may be used to indicate quantity.
A map is a graphic aid representing the proportionately as a diagram, the surface of the earth, world or parts there of. It conveys the message by lines, symbols, words and colors.
Types of maps:
Ø Political maps: these maps show political divisions of the world, a continent, a nation.
Ø Physical maps: shows the physical contour of a place, area, and region.
Ø Relief maps: it shows the actual elevations and depressions in a place, area, and region.
Ø Weather maps: shows the amount of rains, temperature extremes, humidity in an area, region country.
Ø Population maps: shows the distribution of population in various parts of region, country.
Ø Picture or tourist maps: shows historical spots monumental sites.etc..
Ø Road maps: shows the roads of a region connecting various parts and points together.
Ø Railway maps: shows the railway links between various points.
Ø Air maps: shows the air routes between various points.
Ø Sea root maps: shows the sea routes between various sea ports
The word cartoon has various meanings, based on several very different forms of visual art and illustration. The term has evolved over time. The original meaning was in fine art, and there cartoon meant a preparatory drawing for a piece of art such as a painting.
- · The quality of the drawing should be high primarily for visual effectiveness.
- · The symbols used should be familiar and represent a concept or idea to which students can react intellectually.
- A cartoon can be effectively used to initiate certain lesson.
- · It can be used for making a lesson lively and interesting.
- · Fantasy
- · Satire
- · Exaggeration.
It can furnish health messages in local languages which cancan reach to the public easily. The information will be available in low cost, easy to read and understand simple language .the people may learn to read and interpret the contents along with pictures to enhance easy grasping.
Ø Best method to reach a large group
Ø Pictures will help in easy understanding
Ø Attractive and easy to understand
Ø Lot of information can be obtained in various fields
Ø useful for literates only
Ø detailed information cannot be produces
A comic strip is the graphic depiction in a series of pictures or sketches of some character and events full of action. This medium of communication is found very interesting and exciting by children.
- · Comic strips fire the imagination of children
- · It boosts the courage of children and builds up the spirit of adventure.
- · It communication detailed and vivid.
- · It stimulates reality and involvement.
- · Comic strips misguide children by depicting characters with supernatural powers divorced from the hard realities of life.
- · Comic strips hamper the development of language of children.
- · Classics brought out in the form of comics develop the tendency in children to ignore or by pass the original work.
- · Comics can soon become an obsession with young children and they tend to avoid serious studies
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