CTET 2015 Exam Notes : TEACHING OF SCIENCE 


OBJECTIVES AND AIMS OF TEACHING SCIENCE


Education is a process of bringing about changes in an individual in a desired direction. It is a process of helping a child to develop his potentialities to the maximum and to bring out the best from within the child. To bring about these changes we teach them various subjects at different levels of school. 
Science as a subject is included in the school curriculum from the very beginning. Before  taking any decision about teaching science we should pose certain questions to ourselves, such as, why do we teach them science? What are the goals and objectives of teaching science? What   changes does science teaching bring about in the behaviour of the students?

Before answering these questions let us first define goals and objectives.

A goal is the ultimate target in life which an individual tries to achieve. Goals are basically long term objectives which require a long period ·of time co be achieved. For example, development of scientific attitude, to become a responsible citizen etc.
Objectives are short term targets which are specific and could be achieved in a single day or single hour. For example, acquiring knowledge about :some specific things within a prespecified time limit, would come under the purview of objectives.
Students are potential human resources required to be developed into educated, sound, skilled and efficient citizens who will fulfill the aims of social, economical, political and technological development of the society.
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The aim of education is to provide opportunities for personal all-round development of individuals, to
equip them with upto date and sound knowledge of science and technology and make them capable of using science and technology  for the betterment of human society.

Goals/Aims for Science Teaching

Considering the individual teacher and his/her own reason for teaching science it would become. impossible for any educational  system to provide  facilities for each teacher  to achieve his/her goals Therefore, goals are decided at the national level.
Various  commissions  and committees on education  set up by Government  of India  after Independence emphasized the teaching  of science from the primary level. All of them emphasized the teaching of science for:

  • the  development  of  process  skills  like  observation,  classification,  measurement, communication etc.
  • acquisition and understanding of knowledge, development of problem solving skill, skill of investigation, ability to think logically and to draw conclusions on the basis of experiments.
  • development  of  ability to reach  generalizations  and to apply them  for solving every day problems.
  • development of understanding of inter-relationships of science and society.
  •  to foster creativity in people, enabling them to carry out innovations in science.
National Science Foundation, Washington also set the following goals for science and mathematics teaching under its   'Project-2061'  during  1988-89.

GOALS   FOR   SCIENCE   INSTRUCTION   UNDER    'PROJECT-2061'   (NSF, WASHINGTON)


Goal-I: Science must enhance each learner's Personal Development
This could be achieved when children will :

  • ·         understand and use new ideas and scientific information to improve their lives.
  • ·         develop skills to support scientific inquiry.
  • ·         develop problem solving skills needed to respond to a changing society and environment.
  • ·         develop a positive attitude towards science that will encourage continued interest and learning.
  • ·         develop the attitude and skills they need to become responsible consumers.
This goal focuses on ways to enhance students' personality, their curiosity, honesty, self confidence, ability to make decisions, examine values, reason logically and practice the ethics of science.

Goal-II: Learner must understand the inter-relationship of Science, Technology and Society
Under this goal the learners will be able to :

  • ·         understand the interaction of science, technology and society.
  • ·         recognize that solution to one problem can create new problems and that decision must consider the possible consequences for other community members.
  • ·         recognize  that data may be interpreted  differently by different people depending  on their values and experiences.
  • ·         recognize how the advancement of science and technology has changed the lives of people in local, national and global communities.
  • ·         possess a sense of custodianship (collective responsibility for the environment over a period of time) as the need for conservation increases.
GOAL-Ill: Science must develop each learner's Academic and Process  Skill
Science instruction  should help the learners to:

  • ·         develop a knowledge and understanding  of scientific principles and concepts.
  • ·         develop attitude, values, ethics of science to use as a basis for science related decisions.
  • ·         learn to think critically, creatively and rationally so that they can solve problems and promote lifelong  learning.
  • ·         develop process skills so that they can think scientifically.
  • ·         develop  psychomotor  skills  so that  they  can  properly  manipulate/handle  equipment  and instruments.
This goal concentrates on what children  need to become scientifically literate. The curriculum must include the knowledge, concepts, principles, and ideas of science, as well as the attitudes, values and ethics of science, and critical thinking and problem solving skills.

GOAL-IV: Science must help to expand each learner's career awareness
This goal focuses on learner 's ability to :

  • ·         realize that science and technology are relevant to all fields of employment.
  • ·         develop an awareness of occupational and professional opportunities in science for women, minorities and handicapped.
  • ·         develop an awareness of science requirements for occupations and professions.
  • ·         recognize that scientists and technicians possess a full range of personal characteristics and should not be stereotyped.
  • ·         develop effective and positive work habits related to science.
  • ·         become informed about the contribution scientists make to society.
These goals of education are intended to be achieved by the time pupils leave the school and enter the society as responsible and efficient citizens. During the school years they are in the process of developing the personal, social and intellectual aspects of the personality. However, it is necessary to see that the development is taking place in the right direction. In order to monitor the process of development, short term objectives of teaching have been framed by educationists in all societies keeping in view the requirements and nature of individuals as well as that of the discipline, towards progressive  development.

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