CTET 2015 Exam Notes : TEACHING OF ENGLISH
Objectives of Teaching English LanguageBy the term ‘objective’ we mean ‘purpose, goal, target… something aimed at, or wished for.’
As an English teacher, we must fully understand the objectives of teaching English. In this way we will know what we are doing and why we are doing it.
The objectives of teaching English have two main aspects:
1. Language aspect (includes the four basic skills of language – listening, speaking, reading and writing);
2. Literature aspect (includes appreciation of language). The language aspect includes:
a) Understanding the language in both forms – spoken and written. The objectives under this aspect are called comprehension objectives and include the skills of listening and reading.
b) It also includes expression in both forms – spoken and written. The objectives under this aspect are called expression objectives and include the skills of speaking and writing.
The literature aspect includes appreciation of language, style, use of language structures, idioms, and expressions, poetry, drama, short stories etc.
At elementary level, the teacher concentrates only on the language aspect. Poetry, short stories, drama and other form of writing are only used as means to attain language skills. For teaching English at the elementary stage, we have included only the language aspect, with the objectives placed into the following categories:
A. Comprehension Objectives
B. Expression Objectives
‘Comprehension’ means ‘understanding’. Comprehension is the first step of language learning.
· It happens when a person understands what someone says.
· It also happens when a person understands what he reads.
Thus comprehension objectives can further be divided into two separate skills:
- Understanding by listening
- Understanding by reading
In both cases, a person receives information and gets its meaning. Therefore, these skills are also called receptive skills or passive skills. But that does not make their importance any lesser. Without these skills, no progress can be made in learning a language.
Understanding by listening
Understanding English through listening can be of two types. First, when someone speaks in English (oral presentation) the learner understands it completely and quickly. When a learner has acquired this skill, he can carry out the instructions given to him orally. For example, he sits when he hears the command, ‘Sit down.’ He also understands if instead of a person speaking to him, there is a radio broadcast, recording, or television programme. Secondly, he can understand completely and quickly when something is read out to him.
Understanding by reading
Understanding English through reading can also be of two types – oral reading and silent reading.
The learner reads a continuous piece himself aloud and understands its meaning adequately. Loud reading is the initial phase of training, where any mistakes can be corrected by the teacher.
In the second phase, the learner reads silently. This allows a greater concentration and speed.
‘Expression’ means ‘to put thoughts into words’. It is the second step of language learning.
· It happens when a person speaks English correctly.
· It also happens when a person writes English correctly.
Thus expression objectives can further be divided into two separate skills:
i. Speaking (oral expression)
ii. Writing (written expression)
In both cases, a person put forth his own ideas and thoughts. Thus these skills are also called productive skills or active skills.
Speaking English in a desirable manner comes only when the learner can express his thoughts, ideas, and wishes in complete sentences fluently. It requires proper pronunciation, intonation, stress, speed
The learner should be able to express his ideas freely in writing. He should write in different scripts, with proper capitalization, punctuation, spellings, spacing, paragraphing and speed.
The four basic skills of language namely listening, speaking, reading and writing are in the natural order of learning. These are of basic concern for the elementary school teacher. These skills are not acquired in isolation. They are fostered side-by-side. Thus the elementary school English teacher should focus on developing these four basic skills by providing adequate practice to the learner.
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