CTET 2015 Exam Notes : TEACHING OF ENGLISH
Principles of Language TeachingThere are different approaches for the teaching and learning process of languages such as psychological, linguistic and pedagogical principles.
Principle of Habit-Formation: -Language teaching is an art like all other arts, it needs sustained „practice and drill‟ so great stress should be laid on practice instead of cramming exercise. The English teacher should be armed at all fronts‟ like cultural. Social oral behaviorial and conversational approach language habits are formed – 1. Recognition, 2. Imitation, 3. Repetition, 4. Variation, 5. Selection
Principle of Interest: -In the learning of English as a foreign language the principle of interest is to be kept in mind by the teacher because the children do not have an innate interest in the learning of this language. English period creates a sort of „awe and terror‟ in their hearts which is reduce by unsympathetic teachers. The teacher, who creates interest among his pupils, not only wins over his own difficulties, pupil may come together and work in harmony with full enthusiasm.
Principle of Concreteness: -It is a psychological fact that children learn more effectively when they can see and handle objects. A child picks up knowledge through various senses, where one sense reinforces the other. It enables the child to understand the vague and abstract part of the knowledge. In this way, audio-visual aids are the greatest modern aids of teaching because they show a concrete thing first and the abstract thing can follow afterwards with ease.
Principle of Accuracy and Correctness: -This principle leads to correct pronunciation, intonation, spelling, structures and accurate or exact logical expression words having similar sounds with their different order e.g. „S‟ „Sh‟ „Z‟ may form a regular part of practice. So „Accuracy and correctness‟ is the principle which must be followed.
Principle of Selection and Gradation: -Teacher has to select material for his teaching. It means putting language items in order of presentation. It involves-
a. Grouping, b. Sequencing
i. System of language- Phonetic, lexical grammatical, semantic.
ii. Structures- How the selected items fit into each other.
Sounds into words, words into phrases, phrase into sentences, and sentences into contexts.
b. Sequencing means grading or what comes after what. There should be sequence in arrangement of sounds, words, phrases and meaning. This principle involves further steps.
i. Frequency- The number of times a particular structure is normally used.
ii. Teach ability: - Structures which are easy from teaching point of view.
iii. Applicability: - In how many contexts, particular structure is applicable or how far it is productive.
iv. Coverage: - How many different meaning, an item can convey.
v. Learn ability: - How for an item is easy to learn.
Principle of Motivation: -“Motivation is the super highway to learning”. Learning English is a painful process and gives considerable mental strain to the learner. Teachers should try his best to reduce the strain by making use of pictures, models and objects in the classroom. Play way method can diminish/remove the dullness and monotony of the classroom. Correlation between lessons must be necessary. Introduction of the chapter should be abrupting and interesting. The inspiration should lead the learner to learn more and more with the zeal of an integral urge.
Principle of Proportion: -Language is a system. It is an organic whole. Just as the system of our body is composed of the senses of hearing, seeing, heart, lungs and brain etc, so is the system of language composed of sounds, words and structures. Body work, when all organ of the body are in proper condition. So, an English teacher is expected to devote due time to each of four aspects of
language study i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Principle of Natural process: -Mother-tongue is acquired by the children through a natural process. This process should be adopted in technical second language be kept in such a child should be an atmosphere which is necessary to learn a foreign language. Teacher should follow these steps-
i. Due attention should be paid to pronunciation and accent.
ii. Formation of speech habit.
iii. Loud reading may be emphasized than silent reading.
iv. Knowledge of words related to daily, life, should be given.
v. Writing skill should be developed.
Principle of linking with life: -The process of language teaching should not be cut off from life. It should be a part and parcel of actual life and connected with the way of its living. There is not much difference between the vocabulary used by the pupils in the school and outside the school. English speaking is status symbols. It creates inspiration among the students and they frequently use it in their life situations.
Principle of purpose: -People may learn second or third language for different purpose e.g. commercial, social, scientific, academy etc. If the purpose is decided in the beginning it becomes easier to design a course suitable for that purpose. But in India, passing the examinations with goods marks is the main purpose of teacher as well as student. But in this process, many basic components are left and half knowledge is provided. So, purpose should be decided at
Mimicry as the key to language learning: -People who mimic easily have a great advantage in learning a foreign language. Mimicry is the key to learn a foreign language. It means notice carefully such as the position of lips, the quality of the sounds, the speed of utterance, the intonation of the voice, the swing of the sentence and even the characteristic gestures. Imitation or mimicry is the best ways of learning the articulation of foreign words.
Mimicry involves three aspects-
(1) Acute and constant observation
(2) Indulge oneself into it
(3) Continual practice.
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