SELECTION OF TEACHING LEARNING MATERIAL (TLM)
TLM is commonly used acronym that stands for Teaching Learning Material, Broadly the term refers to a spectrum of educational materials that a teacher uses in the classroom to support specific learning objectives as said out in lesson plans. Teaching Learning Materials are tools for significant teaching and learning.They are useful to enhance the quality of teaching learning process. A teacher must explore a variety of materials as suitable aids for instruction to supplement the textbook to provide additional information, to broaden the concepts and to arouse students' interest.
Teaching Learning Materials in teaching of English prove to be supportive in providing experiences to the students in their development of language competencies. Some of the important teaching learning materials are:
- Text book
- Supplementary Reading Materials
- Work books
- Reading Materials- newspaper, magazines, story books etc.
- Reference Materials- encyclopedias, dictionaries etc.
- Graphic Materials - charts, pictures, cartons, posters etc.
- Activity Materials- flash cards, puzzles, crosswords, word building blocks and other language games.
- Language lab
- Sophisticated Materials or Electronic Materials- radio, tape - recorder, T.V. multi media kits etc.
The textbook plays a significant role in the teaching of English. It is helpful in presenting the teaching learning materials in a systematic way with illustrations. It acts as a guide to the teacher and facilitates in stabilizing the students' learning. It provides examples for the usage and methods of teaching vocabulary and structures.
A good textbook should cover the objectives of teaching English. Subject matter should be according to the need, ability and standard of the students. The vocabulary, phrase patterns and sentence structures should be properly selected and graded. It should be well illustrated with relevant pictures, diagrams etc.
(ii) Supplementary Reading Material
Supplementary reading materials are complementary to text books to enhance the information already acquired through the textbook. The language of supplementary reading material should be easier than that of the textbook.
(iii) Work Book
Work books supply the materials through which the students learn by doing. Problems are given requiring application of the knowledge gained in new situations. For language learning different exercises based on the text book materials, should be given for practice in various situations.
(iv) Reading Materials -
The newspaper can play important role in teaching of English. The students are motivated to develop their reading skills. The teacher must judiciously use the newspaper activities. Selecting small items like headlines, news columns (sports, kid's zone etc.) pictures, cartoons and advertisements can be successfully used by a resourceful teacher.
Selecting easy and small items would help the students developing their language skills.
So many magazines are published for school children providing supplementary materials for classroom information in the form of interesting stories. These story books should be colorful, attractive and well illustrated with pictures. It should contain varied and interesting topics in simple and easy language.
(v) Reference Books
Textbooks need to be supplemented with additional material for extra information and illustrations. Various reference books such encyclopedias, dictionaries etc. prove very effective for learning language.
(vi) Graphic Materials- Charts/ Pictures
Charts are combination of graphic and pictorial media designed for the orderly and logical presentation of facts and ideas. Charts are very useful for presenting vocabulary items, structures, substitution tables, composition etc. These charts should be large in size and necessary material should be written in bold letters so that it may be easily visible to all students.
Pictures prove to be very attractive and interesting for teaching of poems and stories. The pictures should be clear and large and should not be overloaded with information. 'One picture, one idea', is a good rule to follow.
(vii) Activity Materials -
Language Games / flash cards etc.
Language games help the learners to learn language in an interesting manner. Language games are oral and written exercises to help students to enhance their vocabulary, comprehension and expression. Language games should be selected on the basis of learner's age and level, size of the class and availability of time and materials. Equipments or materials, required for using games such as objects, pictures, flash cards etc should be assembled prior to introducing the game in the class.
(viii) Language Lab
(ix) Sophisticated Materials -
Radio, Tape-recorder, T.V., Multi- Media Kits etc.
Multi-Media are modern technological materials used for teaching learning. Originally devised for entertainment purpose, the radio is being widely used for educational purposes. The IRP lessons engage students for English teaching through local stories and songs while supporting teachers to develop student-centered teaching skills. The teacher should mange the time-table according to the programme. The teacher can record programmes related to their subjects on tape-recorder and replay them with commentary in the classroom whenever needed.
Records of short talks on interesting topics, recitation of poems or a dramatic piece on tape recorder prove effective in developing worthwhile standards of correct speech. It also provides opportunities to the students to record their speech and listen to it. It improves their pronunciation and speech ability.
Television can also be used effectively in teaching. It appeals to both eyes and ears. Different stories, pictures or dramas can be shown on it. Teachers can deliver lessons through this media. Besides this, digital library allows teacher to access teaching materials developed by national or international organizations. The multi - media kit is also helpful in improving the learning gains in students as well as improving classroom transactions of teachers. The judicious and careful selection of TLM is needed according to the need, ability and standard of the students.
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