Composition is the expression of thoughts, ideas, feelings, observations, experiences in written form. It refers to the process of collecting thoughts or information, arranging them in a sequence and expressing them in accordance with recognized standards of form.
An essay, a story a letter, a poem, a description etc are some of the forms of composition. Proper organization, clarity and effectiveness of the subject matter are some of the important points to be kept in mind while writing composition.

Aims of Teaching Composition

General Aims

(i)        To encourage the students to express their ideas in an organized
and systematic way.
(ii)           To enable them to develop their skill of writing.
(iii)          To  enable  them  to  use  appropriate  vocabulary  in writing  various forms of composition.
(iv)          To enable them for logical presentation of facts and ideas.
(v)            To develop their communicative competence.
TEACHING OF COMPOSITION, Types of Composition and Their Teaching, Oral composition, Written composition, ENGLISH PEDAGOGY Notes, CTET 2015 Exam Notes, TEACHING OF ENGLISH Study Material

Types of Composition and Their Teaching

There are two types of composition:
(1)            Oral composition
(2)           Written composition
They are further divided as:

(i)             Guided oral composition  (i)    Guided written composition
(ii)           Free oral composition     (ii)   Free written composition

 Oral Composition

Composition should begin with the power of speech. It should be oral, long before it is written, as it paves the way for written composition.

Aims of oral composition

To give practice for using graded structures and sentence patterns orally.
(i)       To enable the students to express their ideas, interest and feelings freely.
(ii)      To create suitable situations in the classroom to make them speak on their own.

Teaching of Oral Composition

Following methods can be adopted for teaching oral composition at early stage.
(a)             Asking students to repeat the sentence which the teacher speaks. For example:
Teacher         :         I am reading 
Students        :         I am reading
(b)             The  teacher  can  ask  some  question  by  showing  object  or  performing actions. For example:
Teacher : What is this?
Students : This is a chalk.
Teacher : What is this?
Students : This is a blackboard.
Teacher : What am I doing?
Students : You are writing.

(c)             The teacher can ask question on a picture after describing it. For example: 
Teacher : What is he?
Students : He is a boy.
Teacher : What is he doing?
Students : He is playing.

(d       The teacher can ask the students to read out the substitution tables and make various sentences. For example:

gets up 
takes bath
goes to school

in the morning.

(e)             The teacher can ask questions from the text book.
(f)             The teacher can narrate the simple story and ask questions on it.
(g)             The teacher may have conversation with the students on various topics of general interests.
(i)              The students may be asked to play simple drama.

Guided oral Composition

Guided composition is also known as controlled or directed composition. In guided composition, the students are supplied with the necessary vocabulary and structures to be used to speak or write. At the early stage, the oral composition should be strictly guided because students should proceed from imitation to improvising, from reproduction to original expression. Thus  guided  composition paves the way for free composition. Guided oral composition can be done by the following exercises:

(a)     Repetition of sentences and structures.
(b)     Substitution tables
(c)     Transformation of sentences
(d)     Reproducing a situation
(e)     Reproducing a picture description
(f)  Reproducing a story

Free oral Composition

As the students gain mastery over the guided and controlled vocabulary and structures, they are encouraged to use new words and sentences on their own and express themselves freely. It promotes them for thinking freely. Free composition should be introduced at the later stage when students have done lot of practice in guided and controlled composition.
The teacher can adopt various methods for teaching free oral composition at the later stage:

(a)           The teacher can ask the students to describe the picture or an object on their own.
(b)           The students can be asked to describe the important incidents or events.
(c)           Debates, extempore and speech may be organized on the topics in their range of experience.
(d)           Conversation  can  be  arranged  in  the  class  in  pair  or  group  on familiar situations.
(e)           Short dramas and one act play can be enacted in the class.

Written Composition

Written composition should follow oral composition when the students have gained sufficient knowledge of English vocabulary, structures and spellings. The aims of written composition are as follows:
(i)             To develop their writing ability.
(ii)           To enable them to write correctly
(iii)          To enable them to express their ideas and thoughts in writing in an organized way.

There are two types of written composition:
(a)           Guided written composition
(b)           Free written composition

Teaching of Written Composition

Guided Written Composition is usually introduced at the early stage. The teacher guides the students to write with the help of controlled vocabulary and structures. It lays the foundations for writing free composition. Guided written composition can be done by using the following methods:

(i)              By giving dictation
(ii)             By giving certain words and asking the students to make the sentences using those words.
(iii)            By giving substitution table to make various sentences.
(iv)            Writing description of an object or  a picture with the help of key words.
(v)             By asking to complete the story or a paragraph by filling the gaps.
(vi)            By giving few sentences from the text book and ask them to write parallel sentences.
(vii)           By reproducing the gist of story.
(viii)         By reproducing the description of the picture.
(ix)           Expansion of a topic on the basis of the given outlines.

Free Written Composition should be introduced at the later stage. In free composition, there is no restriction on the students regarding use of vocabulary, structures and the length of composition etc. Students are free to tackle the topic on their own freely. They are encouraged to think freely and express themselves freely.

Types of free composition

There are five types of free composition:

(i)         Narrative composition
It involves description of an event like visit to the zoo, a journey by
train etc. Before making them writing the  narrative composition on a given topic, the teacher may refresh their memory  by discussing the event or the incident and ask them to write on their own in their own

(ii)        Story type composition
The teacher can present a picture or series of pictures before the
students and ask them to write the story. Or teacher may give certain hints and some sentences and ask them to develop the story.

(iii)            Reflective Composition
It includes essay writing, letter writing application etc.

(a)       Essay writing: At the early stage, teacher should give easy topics for essay writing but at the higher stage, students can be given all types of topics to write in their own style. They should be made clear about the parts of the essay i.e. introduction, main body and conclusion.

(b)    Letter writing: Letter writing can be divided into two categories:
(i) Informal letters (ii) formal letter
The students should be made familiar with various parts of formal and informal letters and about different style of writing them. Initially they may be given the format of particular letter and asked to complete it.

(iv)            Imaginative composition
The teacher can give some imaginary situation or topic to the students to write on it using their own imagination. For example: If I were a principal!  When I trapped in a road jam!

(v)              Literary composition
Literary  composition  includes  abstract  writing  and  explanation writing.

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