CTET 2015 Exam Notes : TEACHING OF ENGLISH
TEACHING OF GRAMMAR
Grammar is the study of organization of words into sentences which is based on certain rules. According to Prof. Nelson Francis, "Grammar is the set of formal patterns in which the words of a language are arranged in order to convey meanings.It gives the pupils ability to speak and write correctly and enables them to use formal language patterns properly for describing a thing." The acquisition of the grammatical system of a language remains the most important element in language learning.
Aims of Teaching of Grammar
The aims of teaching grammar are as follows:
(i) To develop student's insight into the structures of English language
(ii) To enable the students to develop their understanding about the rules of English grammar through use and practice.
(iii) To enable the students to assimilate the correct patterns of the language without rote memorization.
(iv) To enable the students to speak and write correctly.
(v) To develop a scientific attitude towards the language.
Methods of Teaching Grammar
There are four main methods of teaching grammar:
1) The Traditional method
2) The informal method
3) The reference or correlation method
4) The inductive-deductive method
The Traditional Method
In this method grammatical items are taught with the help of a grammar book which contains definitions, rules, examples and exercises. For example:
Definition of Noun: "A noun is the name of a person place or thing"
Examples: Sachin, Seema, Delhi, Kanpur, Book, Chair etc.
Exercise: Underline the nouns in the following sentences.
Rajesh lives in Delhi. My father gave me pen.
The main procedure in this method is from rule to example. It emphasizes on rote learning of rules and definitions. Students find it least interesting and monotonous.
The Informal Method
This method advocates the teaching of grammar not by rules but by usages. By continuous practice of using words while speaking, reading and writing grammar can be learnt. This method proves useful at the early stage when students learn language by lot of oral work. This method demands a lot of practice and time for learning the grammatical items on the part of the students. The students do not get systematized knowledge of grammar.
The Reference or correlation method
This method is also called incidental method as grammar is taught incidentally in this method. Grammar is taught while teaching the text book lesson or a composition. The sentence patterns, structures etc that are used in the text book lesson or composition are taught during teaching of the lesson. For example:
White teaching the particular lesson, the teacher instructs the
students to note all the examples of the present tense and past tense separately.
After noting the different sentences of present tense and past tense, the grammatical rules are discussed in the class. This method lays stress on the application of the rules and their usage. It is not considered a complete method as grammatical items are taught only incidentally. It can interfere with the normal teaching.
The Inductive and Deductive Method
This method is considered to be the best method as it follows certain educational principles from known to unknown, from simple to complex, from general to particular, from concrete to abstract etc.
Inductive means to proceed from observation to laws and rules.
Deductive means to proceed from the law and rule to observation and examples. This method has two processes:
(a) Inductive Process
(b) Deductive Process
For teaching grammar inductively and deductively following steps are to be followed:
(i) Presentation of examples in a systematic way.
In the first step, the teacher presents the examples of the grammatical item to be taught in a systematic way.
(ii) Observation and analysis of examples
The teacher asks the students to observe the examples and analyze them with the help of students.
(iii) Generalization/Generation of rule or definition
After analysis of the examples, they come to certain conclusions or generalization and draw certain rule or definition.
(i) Presentation of the rule or the definition.
In this step, the teacher points out the rule or the definition.
(ii) Verification and application of the rules.
The teacher gives several other examples to verify the rule or the definition. The teacher again motivates the students to observe and analyze the example and apply the rule or the definition.
(iii) Practice for the application of the rule.
The teacher gives ample practice for the application of rule and definition.
Inductive & deductive method is based on psychological maxims of learning and makes the active participation of the students. It has no place for rote memorization as the rules and definitions are discovered by the students themselves. Thus it stimulates their thinking and reasoning power. It is advisable that grammar should be taught informally at the early stage with the inductive and deductive method and incidental method at the middle stage and with traditional method at the higher
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