CTET 2015 Exam Notes : TEACHING OF ENGLISH
TEACHING OF PROSE
The word prose has been derived from the Latin word, 'Prosa' or 'Proversa Oration' that means' straight forward discourse'. Prose is a powerful medium of expressing ideas, facts, laws and principles. Therefore it appeals to head or mind. The main aim of teaching prose is to enlarge the vocabulary, explain the structure of sentences and grasp the ideas of the author.
The teaching of prose includes two types of lessons:
1. Detailed or Intensive Prose Lessons
2. Non-detailed or Extensive Prose Lessons.
Detailed Prose Lessons
In detailed prose lessons, the text book is read thoroughly word by word. Students are required to read it not only for comprehension but for mastering the prescribed structure and vocabulary.
Non-Detailed or Extensive Prose Lessons
Non-detailed prose lessons aim at giving information and pleasure. Students are required to grasp the meaning of new words according to the situation or context in which they are used.
Aims of Teaching of Prose
The aim of teaching English prose is for language development and literary development both. But at the Junior Level, the chief aim is language development. This means that emphasis should be given on the development of four basic skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Thompson & Wyatt said, 'To aim at literature is to miss the way to language. Aim at language is to pave the way to literature.'
The aims of teaching prose may be divided into two:
(1) General Aims
1. To enable the students to read aloud prose lessons with correct pronunciation stress,
intonation and pause.
intonation and pause.
2. To enable the students to comprehend the thought and idea contained in the passage.
3. To enrich their active and passive vocabulary.
4. To enable the students to express the ideas contained in the passage orally and in writing.
5. To develop their interest for reading.
6. To enable them to write correctly.
7. To build their character and prepare for world citizenship.
(2) Specific Aims
The specific aims vary according to the subject matter of the prose lessons. The specific aims of different types of prose lessons are:
(i) To develop the student's imagination and love for natural objects.
(ii) To acquaint the students with the writer's style.
(i) To give certain facts and lessons through the story.
(ii) To shape the student's character.
(iii) To develop interest for story reading.
(i)To acquaint them with the style of essay writing.
(ii)To enable them to arrange the ideas in a systematic way.
(i) To make them speak conversational English.
(ii) To encourage the students to play different roles.,
(iii) To build their character.
(i) To get students acquainted with the life and deeds of great men.
(ii) To inculcate in them desirable sentiments and ambitions.
(iii) To show them the path of character building.
Procedure of Teaching Prose Lesson
Procedure of teaching prose lesson involves the following steps:
(d) Home Assignment
English is a foreign language. Indian students find it difficult to learn so proper preparation is required to motivate the students to learn English. Under this following points are to be considered:
(I) General Aims (already discussed)
(II) Specific Aims (already discussed)
(III) Material Aids
The teacher makes the appropriate use of audio-visual aids to make the lesson interesting.
(IV) Previous knowledge
The teacher should know how much knowledge students already possess regarding the lesson. So that he can give new knowledge by linking it to their previous knowledge.
The introduction is the important part to make the students ready to learn and start the lesson. As it is believed that, ‘well begun is half done.’ The introduction has two purposes:
(i) To bring the previous knowledge to consciousness.
(ii) To link the previous knowledge to the new knowledge to be given.
Introduction can be done in different ways. The teacher may start by asking some introductory questions in order to test the previous knowledge of the students and then link it to the topic to be taught. He may attract the student's attention by showing pictures, charts, models etc. and arouse their curiosity. In the event of a continuing lesson, the teacher can ask questions on the portion of the lesson already taught.
(VI) Statement of the Aim
Under this, the teacher clearly explains the topic which he is going to teach and instructs the students to open their books at the appropriate page.
Presentation is the main part of the lesson plan. The lesson may be divided into two or more units. The following sub-steps are followed in each unit.
I. Reading Aloud by the Teacher
Reading aloud by the teacher is called model reading. The teacher reads aloud the selected passage with proper pronunciation, stress, intonation and pause. The speed of reading should be normal and audible to the entire class. He should keep an eye on the class while reading aloud to see whether the students are following the reading in their text books.
II. Pronunciation Drill:
Pronunciation drill should precede reading aloud. The words should be selected on the basis of the pronunciation skills of the class. The selected words should be written on the blackboard one by one and practiced.
Those words are selected which are:
- difficult to pronounce by the students
- commonly mispronounced by the students.
- containing the silent letter.
III Reading aloud by the students
The teacher asks some students to read the passage aloud one by one. Loud reading by the students is also called imitation reading as they try to imitate the teacher's pronunciation, pause and intonation.
IV Exposition of new words/ Phrases
The teacher selects the new words and phrases from the passage and explains their meanings. The teacher can adopt different methods for explaining the meanings:
(i) By showing the object, model, picture or chart.
(ii) By using the word in sentence.
(iii) By giving synonym/ antonym.
(iv) By drawing a sketch or figure on the blackboard.
(v) By showing action or gesture
(vi) By translating the word in mother tongue.
V Silent Reading
After exposition of new words/phrases, the teacher asks the students to read the passage silently. This helps rapid reading, learning of new words and quick grasp of meaning. The teacher should supervise the class while students are reading. Adequate time should be given to complete the reading of the passage.
VI Comprehension Questions
After the silent reading, some questions based on the passage should be asked to test students' comprehension of the passage. The following type of questions may be asked:
(i) By asking meanings of new words.
(ii) By asking short questions on the main portion of the passage.
(iii) To pick out different forms of words or phrases.
Recapitulation or Application Test
The purpose of recapitulation is to evaluate the extent to which the objectives of the lesson have been achieved. The recapitulation is generally done with different types of questions. The question should be from all the passages taught in different units. These questions are different from comprehension questions. The questions can be as follows:
(i) Fill in the blanks
(ii) Match the column
(iii) Complete the lines
(iv) Choose the correct answer
Assigning home work is the final stage of a lesson plan. Home assignment is the basis for retaining learning. It can be given in different forms:
(i) Use the new words in their sentences.
(ii) Make a list of words related with a particular group or topic
(iii) Remember the spellings of new words.
(iv) Write the answer of the given questions.
(v) Some project work may also be given.
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