CTET 2015 Exam Notes : TEACHING OF ENGLISH


Teaching of Language Skills : Reading skill 

A language teacher is primarily concerned with the language abilities of his pupils. There are four such abilities. Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. Of these the ability to read is of paramount importance.
Reading means to understand the meaning of printed words that is written symbols. It implies reading with comprehension.

William S. Gray in  his  book, “History and Philosophy of Reading Instructions" has defined reading thus – "Reading is the process of recognizing printed and written symbols, involving such habits as accuracy in recognizing the words that make up a passage, span of recognition, rate at which words and phrases are recognized, rhythmical progress of perception along the lines and accurate return sweep of the eye from the end of one line to the beginning of the next.”

Teaching of Reading skills


To read well is a noble exercise; reading is the process of looking carefully at written or printed symbols and translating them into the spoken symbols.

Reading consist of three elements

I.                   The written or printed symbol
II.                   The spoken symbols
III.                   The Sense

In teaching children to read, three main objects are in view-

1.      Firstly, children should gain (have) full control over the words and patterns, which they first come-across during the process of speaking.
2.      Secondly, they can attain the power of gaining pleasure and profit from the printed page.
3.      Thirdly, they  became  able to make  audible  the beauty  of  words  and their emotional significance.

Reading skill should be given the key place in the total scheme of teaching English.
     We can also say that reading is the ability to extract from the written or printed page, the thoughts, facts and information required .
     The success of Children in reading depends on their readiness to read.
     Linguists are of the opinion that beginning to read is nothing but transfer stage form auditory signs to visual signs. This means that oral background is a necessary adjust to the reading stage.

So, reading should be introduced-
I.                   When the public have gained sufficient knowledge of the auditory signs.
II.                   When the public can recognise shapes of printed words and can associate them with spoken words and their meanings.
III.                   When the pupils can understand and carry out simple oral instruction related to class-work
IV.                   When   they   can   ask   questions   and   enquire   about   the   surrounding environment including even the printed word.
V.                   When they can memorise some material and recite it.
VI.                   When, the pupils are fully motivated for the new experience.

The nature of the Reading- process:-


Reading does not involve "a process of learning new or other language signals than those the child has already learned."
In 'talk' the message is conveyed by the language signals that "make their Contact by means of sound waves received by ear."
In 'reading' the message is conveyed by the same language signals which "consist of graphic shapes that make their contact with his nervous system through light waves received by the eye."
The meaning of the printed symbol is comprehended not through the eye gate but through the vocal organs which stir-up the vibration reaching the brain to enable it to interpret and convey the meaning.
In loud reading, the speech organs produce audible sounds while in silent reading no such thing happens.

Essential factors in the Reading Process:-

There are a few essential factors in the process of reading. There are movements of the eyes, there is word recognition, there process works and then there is understanding of the material that is read.

Eye movements:-

Eyes play an important role in the reading process. Eye movements are steady or smooth along the lines of the print. A series of jumps or jerks are visible. It is during these fixations the eyes get to recognise the word or phrases.
Perception-Span:-The number of words taken in one pause is known as the"perception-spam".

Eye-Span: - 

If we divide the number of letters in the live just read by the number of process . we get the number of letters read in each pause. This is known as the eye-span.
It varies with the size of the print - the bigger the letters in size, the smaller the eye span. Moreover, different readers see different number of letters in one pause.
Besides, the number of fixations or pauses per line depends on the difficulties of the material that is given for reading age and the maturity of the reader.

Word-recognition:-

Good reading involves the ability in recognition words and extracting meaning form them. The ability in recognizing words  depends upon.

The type of letter:-

 Projecting word like (t,p,f,t,d) and non-projecting like(a,o,u). Words containing the former types of letters are more easily recognized than words containing non-projecting  letters.
A.           The shape of words: - Words similar in shape like receive deceive, bid did, etc. often confuse the beginner .
B.            The  range  of   learner's  experience: - words  which  are associated  with objects and ideas within  the learner's experience  and words  which the child has already heard or practiced in speech are easily recognised.
C.            Reading Speed: - Speed is an important factor in reading. A slow reader is usually considered to be a bad reader. Speed also depends upon age and maturity of the learner.
D.           Comprehension or understanding :- The whole reading activity is useless if the material read is not understood by reader of course, general intelligence interest in a particular subject, previous knowledge of the subjects discussed in the reading comprehension. Still the teacher should carefully help the child in over. Coming soon of the common reading faults which inhibit the reading process. These faults are faulty eye-movements, slow speed, head-movements, poor-word. Recognition, back-word eye movements etc.

Teaching of Reading skill, Teaching of Language Skills, How to promote Reading Skill?,  Essential factors in the Reading Process, Methods of Teaching Reading Skill,  ENGLISH PEDAGOGY Notes, CTET 2015 Exam Notes, TEACHING OF ENGLISH Study MaterialMethods of Teaching Reading Skill

There are some methods which are applied-

The  Alphabetic  Method- 

This method begins with the parts and reaches  the whole. Every letter in the word is taken as an independent unit quite significant in constituting the word itself. So, pupils are taught first the names of the letters in the alphabetic order of the language. Then, they join these letters to from the complete word.
C-A-T= CAT
In this way, he goes from word to word and finishes the sentence.

Deficiencies/Demerits

  • ·         It is unscientific because it goes against the basic scientific fact that a language has unity.
  • ·         It is based on wrong assumption that the letters of the alphabet in themselves have meaning.
  • ·         It is unreal and wasteful, because the pupils do not show and interest in the individual letters. They have to be taught words and word-groups, not letters.
  • ·         It gives a wrong idea to the pupils that there is one to one correspondence between letter and sound C/Si
  • ·         It is unpsychological. We never see letters but words.
  • ·         Pupils  learn to read  without  understanding,  because  they  are lost in
              deciphering the word in letters.

The  Phonic  Method- 

This method  is the result  of  the feeling of  inconsistency between the letters and their sounds. This method consists in teaching the sounds rather than the letters.
So, from the very beginning the child is acquainted with the sound and sound­ pattem.
"A good feature of this method is its rationalization  of the approach to the symbols of the language through pertinent sounds."
Cat-Rat-Hat-Bat
Demerits-

  • ·         We do not have the same sound for each letter always.
  • ·         Different sounds for the same vowel or consonant is misleading.
  • ·         It goes against the principle of language unity.
  • ·         The  unit  of  thoughts  is  complete  sentence,  not  individual  word.  It
  • ·         encourage reading one word at a time.
  • ·         It encourages the bad habit of reading one word at a time.
  • ·         It breaks the unit of the language.
  • ·         A large number of words cannot be taught with the help of this method because their spelling is irregular.

Look and Say Method-


  • ·         This method is also known as word method.
  • ·         The unit of teaching is word. It is best brought into action with the help of Flash cards.
Demerits-

  • ·         It breaks the unit of the language
  • ·         Individual words  do not convey proper  meaning. Meaning has to be taught in Context.
  • ·         This Method involves unnecessary jumps and jerks which are harmful in acquiring good reading habit.

Phrase Method-


  • ·         The phrases no doubt create more interest and words become better meaningful when put together .
  • ·         It helps to recognize more words in one perception span.
  • ·         Well-set, phrases are taught like "to the door" 'on the bench' . 'To the windows. On the black-board etc, not single words.
  • ·         Unnecessary jumps are avoided

The Sentences Method-


  • ·         This method is based on the psychological principle of language teaching. The sentences are the unit of thought.
  • ·         It is the best method of teaching.
  • ·         To encourage the student to follow this method.

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