CTET 2015 Exam Notes : TEACHING OF ENGLISH


Teaching of Language Skills : Writing Skill 

Speech come to man as a gift from nature. Oral work is the back bone of language teaching. Oral work supplies material for written work. Fair and legible handwriting makes a man perfect.

According to Becon, "Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man and writing an exact man".
Writing is a product of development. The real test of their knowledge of the language is their ability to express their ideas in a written from.

Teaching Mechanics of writing:

1. Controlling the small muscles of the fingers and wrist.
2. Securing Co-ordination of the hand and the eye write betters of the correct shape and size.
3. Giving proper spacing between letters, words and line.
4. Using capital letters where required and putting punctuation marks.

Forms of Writings: -


Teaching of Language Skills : Writing Skill , Teaching Mechanics of writing, Forms of Writings, Essentials of Teaching Writing, How to teach writing the alphabets to the Beginners, Characteristics of Good-Handwriting, Techniques of Improve Handwriting,  ENGLISH PEDAGOGY Notes, CTET 2015 Exam Notes, TEACHING OF ENGLISH Study Material

Earlier form (Picture writing)- 

The earlier kind of writing was 'picture writing'. It was not easy. It presented difficulties because everything, a person cannot record in pictures. It was difficult to learn and read because thousands of objects and ideas needed different sign to express.
The script of the Chinese language is based upon picture script and one has to learn hundred of symbols in order to understand spark, read and write this language.

The Alphabetic form- 

In this form, each letter or symbol represents a different sound. It was first used by the Phoenicians of solomen. The Romans copied this method and the present script of writing of English is also called 'Roman script'.
So, the linguistic activities may be compared to the four pillars supporting the magnificent structure of language. Writing is just like pasting and plastering. The teacher like a conscientious artist, places not only bricks and mortar and other material required for his fine creation, but also paste and plasters it and gives it a finishing touch.

Essentials of Teaching Writing -

1.       The  choice  of  script: - Script is the written of strokes, circles, dots  etc. These scripts are of your kind.
(1)              Print Script- In this type, the letters appears in words which are not joined to gather. The common practice in teaching writing is to start with print script. It is the simple form of writing. It is straight and clear in shapes of letters, and it is not confusing in anyway.
(2)              Cursive writing- In this type, the letters are joined together with strokes or loops. This is the running type of writing. Cursive script is useful because it makes writing fluent and facile, developed speed.

Marion Richardseon Script- In this type, all the letters are not joined together.This script is also called rounded cursive. The basis of this type of writing is a system of rhythmic  pattern movements. This script found wide favour with the teachers all over the world . It is infect, a development of print script with certain requirements of cursive script.
  1. Italic- This kind of writing was used in Italian manuscript in the Middle Ages. It is a kind of cursive script but more pointed. Though it can be written very quickly, yet its major drawback is its being difficult to read. At early stage, it is not very much encouraged.
  2. choice of style- Another essential of good writing is the choice of proper style. There are two types of styles -
Vertical and slanting

Vertical style is easy to follow and may be encouraged. Slanting style, there are two options-
  1. Forward slanting
  2. Backward  slanting- The choice of style depends upon individual different, but there should be uniformity in the pupils writing.
  3. Choice of material- In the beginning, the student should be taught to write on a rough  surface with soft chalk, or the very first lesson should start with the  pupils' finger movement on sand. Writing on a rough surface will  regulate the movements of pupil's fingers and muscles and eye  coordination. The surface on which to write should be rough but pencil or chalk should be quite soft. It should be followed by writing in ink.
  4. Postures- Right posture is an important factor in teaching writing. It consists in the position of the body, arm, head and paper etc. At their desks, students should sit comfortably in correct position; his head should be held high so that his eyes are about a foot away from the paper. The body should learn slightly forward from the hips, but should not touch the desk. Both arms should be within two or three inches of the elbows. The teacher should also pay attention to left handed children. It should be discouraged.


How to teach writing the alphabets to the Beginners:

Three methods are commonly used-

(1)   Use  of  Kinder  Garten  Apparatus- under this method pupils  are given practice in constructing the alphabets by joining the piece of wood in different shapes. Itis suitable only for infants

(2)   Tracing Method- under this method, the learner is  required  to make movements of the pen or pencil held in his hand over the printed letters. The letters are generally printed in dotted lines or they are written with a soft pencil. This method is neither very effective nor pedagogically sound.

(3)   Free hand imitation- under this method pupils imitate the printed letters in their note-books or they imitate the form or movements from teachers writing on the black board .

(4)   F. G. French's Method- the beginners should be taught to write the letters in vertical style and they should be taught first small letters after that capital letters.

Characteristics of Good-Handwriting 

1.Distinctiveness- This means 'each letter should have a characteristic form of its own'. It means 'a' should resemble 'a' and not 'e', 'E' should resemble 'e' not 'f' etc. The letters should not be distorted.

Legibility- A legible handwriting is easy to read and causes no confusion. It is also a reflection of mind. Letters should possess all the fine aspect of legibility i.e. letter-formation, regularity of slant, quality of line or stroke, alignment and spacing,
e.g. Difficulty in dotting (i)
Difficulty in crossing '+'
Top stroke short as in 'h'


Pupils do not write properly-Five  letters-  a, e, r, t, f. the teacher should pay special attention to these letters which the students do not write properly.

2. Uniformity- Whatever style the students adopt, should be uniform in size, spacing and alignment. It means that all the words should be written either in a vertical style or slanting style. If they are written in a slanting style, it should be either forward slant or backward slant throughout.

Appropriate  size of  letters- The size of the letters should be neither  too big nor too small. These should be proportion between the sizes of  letters. Margin between two letters should be appropriate.

Spacing- Proper spacing adds beauty to the style. The letters and words should be properly spaced. There should also be proper spacing between lines.
Spacing the letters in a word, the words in line and the lines in a page should not be crowded too closely together. This will avoid over writing. Simplicity- Handwriting  should  be always simple.  It should have  no unnecessary  tails or simple letter shape had good appeal, unnecessary strokes should be avoided.

Speed- A.W. Frisly, "the writing should not be labored but done at a reasonable speed". Speed combined with practice. Good handwriting is carried out at a reasonable speed.

Attractiveness- Handwriting which is attractive and nice to look at is a great asset. A beautiful handwriting is one in which the letters are well framed even in size & spaced which is upright or slopes slightly forward and in which the lines of writing are parallel to the top of sheet of a paper.So, handwriting must be 'nice to look at'. 

Techniques of Improve Handwriting

1.   Calligraphy: - 

A type of good handwriting which is learnt with the help of a special type of brush or pen.


2. Transcription and Dictation- 

Transcription and dictation are interrelated. Transcription aims at neatness and care and promotes accuracy which are also required in dictation and composition. Dictation is an exercise in hearing and correct spelling.

Transcription is a sort of reproduction exercise which enables the pupils to see words or sentences and then write on their copy books. This exercise is not only useful but also pleasure giving to the children. For a beginner, transcription may be done for the sake of handwriting . The teacher should ask the pupils to transcribe words involving the types of letters that may be troublesome in some way.
  • Transcription should be given only after the pupils are familiar with the scripts.
  • It may also be done for spelling observation. 
  • Words, the spellings of which are likely to pose difficult should be given for transcription . 
  • Language patterns can also be practiced by transcript.
  • Specific language construction based on the use of article prepositions, adverbs etc, can be conveniently framed to give models for transcription. 
  • Transcription should become a productive activity leading to extension work. This will require the pupils to keep a special eye on the meaning.
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