NCERT / CBSE NOTES : Chapter Summary
The Making of Regional Cultures
Development of Regional Culture
Regions developed due to shared commonalty amongst the people like language, traditional rituals, and food habits. The traditions we follow have evolved through the intermingling of cultures. Language ties people together as a community more strongly than any other factor.
Earlier, all texts were written in Sanskrit. In the 9th century, Chera Kingdom of Mahodayapuram, first time, used a regional language, Malayalam, for administrative purposes, giving it the same position of power and respect as Sanskrit.
Shared religious traditions bring people together, especially if these traditions have the backing of the region’s rulers. The deity at Orissa was originally a local god who later identified as Vishnu. Realizing the important role of Vishnu in culture, King Anantavarman of the Ganga Dynasty constructed a temple for Purushottama Jagannath at Puri.
Another factor that brings people together is their shared values like, the Rajputs of Rajasthan speak different languages. However, the factor uniting them is their valour.
Development of Regional Art Forms
Regional art forms came into existence owing to the need of people to their story. As a result, unique art forms were developed like dance, folktales and paintings to record and retell the past.
Kathak, a dance form is derived from the word Katha which means story. Initially, it was performed only in temples; it evolved as being performed in the Mughal courts and today as a classical dance form.
Painting was also used to record history and a unique style of painting called miniature was developed. This style also evolved from being a uniform Rajasthani style into the current schools of paintings like Mughal, Kangra, Basohli and Deccan.
In Himachal Pradesh, the painters developed a bold and intense style of miniature painting, called Basohli. The most popular text to be painted here was Bhanudatta’s Rasamanjari.
After Nadir Shah’s invasion of Delhi, these artists found patrons in the hills where they founded theKangra school. The most popular themes in the Kangra school were taken from the Vaishnavite traditions.
Development of Bengali Culture
The Bengali language is not an original regional language evolved through the intermingling of tribal and Sanskrit languages. It was accepted as a major regional language under the Mughal rule. The rich Bengali literature can be divided into two categories i.e. I. Derived from Sanskrit books like the Mangalakavyas and Bhakti literature like the autobiographies of Chaitanyadeva, and II. Original literature like Maynamati, Gopichandra, Dharma Thakur stories, folktales and fairy tales.
Alongside Mughals started building mosques and the leaders of which were called Pirs. The term Pir was used to address saints or Sufis and other religious personalities, daring colonisers and deified soldiers, various Hindu and Buddhist deities, and even animistic spirits.
Powerful individuals and groups started building temples to display their goodness and the Bengali style of temple architecture went through an evolution like the double roof (dochala) and four-roofed (chauchala) on thatched huts.
The temples were built on square platforms and the builders focused on creating exquisite exteriors decorated with paintings, ornamental tiles or terracotta tablets while the interiors were kept plain. Rice and fishing make the staple food of the Bengalis. Fish was so popular a chief diet that even the Brahmins consumed it as per the Sanskrit text Brihaddharma Purana.