CTET 2015 Exam Notes : TEACHING OF ENGLISH


Types of Reading 


Reading means to understand the meaning of printed words that is written symbols. It implies reading with comprehension.
William S. Gray in  his  book, “History and Philosophy of Reading Instructions" has defined reading thus – "Reading is the process of recognizing printed and written symbols, involving such habits as accuracy in recognizing the words that make up a passage, span of recognition, rate at which words and phrases are recognized, rhythmical progress of perception along the lines and accurate return sweep of the eye from the end of one line to the beginning of the next.”


There are different types of reading which lead to comprehension.
1. Land Reading
2. Silent Reading
3. Oral Reading
4. Intensive Reading
5. Extensive Reading
6. Skimming
7. Scanning
8. Supplementary Reading
9. Library Reading

Land Reading: 

AW. firstly calls loud reading "a necessary evil". It is necessary for two reasons.
  • First, it ensures that the reading process is going on and helps the teacher to improve it.
  • Second, it gives practice in the manipulation of sounds and practice in speech and pronunciation.
Reading aloud is often helpful in developing a sense of appreciation for the language as a whole and prose and poetry in particular. Reading aloud gives the pupils a sense of pleasure, power and mastery over the language.  It teaches  the  student  to  read  with  correct  pronunciation articulation, intonation stress and rhythm.

 Skimming- 

Skimming is a reading of one's fastest speed. It is used to achieve more significant information out of a lot of material. When skimming, reader goes through the material quickly in order to get the gist of it, to know how it is organized or to get an idea of the tone or the intention of the writer.

How to skim- After noting the titles and subtitles which identify the topic, read paragraph fully.
Read at the fastest speed to get the idea of the stage, the setting, style tone or mood.
Reader reads only key sentence and tries to get the main idea.
The reader lets his eyes jump down through the paragraph picking up one or two important words, phrases.

Significance-
1.                  Itis useful for students and professional.
2.                  It gives general idea of the matter.
3.                  Itis useful in building up a fund of reference information.

Scanning: -

In scanning, reader means darting over much of a text to reach for a specific item or piece of information that he wishes to discover.

How to scan-

• To fix clearly in mind what he is looking for.
• To plan how the required information can be obtained.
• Floating approach (moring back or forth) is applied.
• Reads as much as he required.

Significance-
It  has   great   importance   to   exclusives,   administrators,   professors, researchers, to get required information in a short time.
For dictionary use, it is very useful. For phone directory, it is applied.
i. Supplementary Reading:- This is similar to extensive reading but its chief aim is to supplement the intensive reading of a detailed prose-lesson.
ii.Library Reading: - It is done in the formal setup of a classroom and is done during specific periods.

Oral Reading- 

Oral reading means reading aloud. In the early stages children are taught the mechanics of reading. (the sounds of a language that are significant for meaning, the force with which syllables are said, the rise and fall in pitch level, words forming sense groups that are said at one go without a pause). It is necessary to ensure that the pupil correctly associate the spoken word with the printed symbols. Its obvious use is that it provides practice in good speech to the learners and  affords the teacher an opportunity to find out whether the student is reading with correct pronunciation or not.
In addition to pronunciation, oral reading helps the child in :

1.                  recognising quickly the oral counter parts of the printed symbols.
2.                  recognizing meaningful units.
Types of Reading, Land Reading, Silent Reading, Oral Reading, Intensive Reading, Extensive Reading, Skimming, Scanning, Supplementary Reading, Library Reading, ENGLISH PEDAGOGY Notes, CTET 2015 Exam Notes, TEACHING OF ENGLISH Study Material3.                  becoming better readers ultimately because oral reading is                 a stepping stone to success in silent reading.
4.            becoming better speakers.

Silent Reading : 

Along with the ability to read aloud, students should be introduced to the skill of   silent reading. Reading in actual life is mostly silent reading. The purpose of silent reading is to enable the learners to comprehend the meaning of what they read with speed. The speed in silent reading is more than in reading aloud, as here students have not to concentrate on pronunciation. The teacher should ensure that the students don’t move their lips when they read silently. It retards the speed of reading. After the students have read a passage silently, appropriate questions should be put to them to test their comprehension. In short it can be said that-
  1. Silent reading is a complex set of skills.
  2. It is more than recognizing and understanding isolated words. It requires one to think, feel and imagine.
  3. While one reads silently, his eyes do not sweep across the line of  print smoothly and steadily but move in jerks from one point to another.
  4. The defects at the physical level can be remedied by repeated instruction and careful supervision.
  5. Silent reading helps to consolidate different skills acquired in that language eg. vocabulary, spelling, pronunciation, meaning, structure, punctuation etc.
  6. The earlier we train our learners to read silently, the better it is. As soon as the learners gain some background of the basic structure of the languages, we should start giving them practice in silent reading.

Intensive Reading: 

Intensive reading means a detailed study of the text. At the school level students are supposed to study the text books in detail. Its main purpose is to provide practice with sentences of a newly introduced pattern. In this type of reading the student masters at the productive level all the new vocabulary items and grammatical item. He also understands in detail the ideas expressed in the text under study.

Training in exact reading should go on throughout the language programme. Such reading sessions lay the foundation for scientific and technical studies. In the beginning the amount of such reading completed by a class may be small which the teacher should not bother about as long as the students understood exactly and fully what they are reading. The purpose is not to develop speed or ease of reading but to help students understand each and every detail precisely.
While teaching a text for developing intensive reading skills, the teacher asks the students carefully chosen questions to know whether the students have comprehended the reading materials. Thus the students read the passage/text again and again to understand it.

Extensive Reading: 

In practical life a person does not read intensively i.e. paying close attention to every detail, unless he has a special reason for it. Unlike intensive reading, the main purpose here is not to concentrate on study of the language but to concentrate on subject matter. So extensive reading means a non- detailed study of the text or book. It is this type of reading that a student or an adult needs in his day to day life like reading a newspaper, an article, a fiction or a non-fiction etc. It is not necessary to read these things in minute details. All that a person is concerned with is to know the main points. So extensive reading aims at training in "reading for information". Supplementary reader prescribed in school syllabus is meant for extensive reading.
Both  extensive  and  intensive  readings  are  important.  Intensive  reading enriches  the  students  command  of  language  and  extensive  reading  further
reinforces it.

The chief differences in teaching intensive and extensive reading are:

i.   In intensive reading there is model reading by the teacher and reading aloud by the students. In extensive reading, neither model reading by the teacher nor reading aloud by the students is done.

ii.   In intensive reading the meaning of new words is explained but it is generally not done in extensive reading. Students can give the meaning from  the context or they have  already learnt these words in intensive  reading.

iii.    No grammatical work is done in extensive reading.

Supplementary Reading: - 

This is similar to extensive reading but its chief aim is to supplement the intensive reading of a detailed prose-lesson.

Library Reading: - 

It is done in the formal setup of a classroom and is done during specific periods.

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