History - Administration under Akbar (Download in PDF)


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History - Administration under Akbar


Like other Muslim monarchs, Akbar was, at least in theory, subordinate to the wishes of entire Muslim population (millat), which, in turn, was guided by the Muslim learned divines called the Ulema. Akbar sought to remove this check to his will and became the supreme authority over his Muslim subjects by promulgating the Infallibility Decree (Mahzar) in September 1579. 


Akbar believed that the king must be absolutely tolerant to every creed and must establish universal peace in his dominion. 

As per Abul Fazal’s Akbarnama, Akbar appeared three times every day for State business. Early at sunrise he used to be ready at jhroka-i-darshan to show himself to his subjects. Here he was accessible to the common people and listened to their complaints. Next, he used to hold an open court which generally lasted for four and a half hours. Peo-ple from both sexes were allowed to submit their petitions and the emperor used to decide the cases on the spot. 

In the afternoon Akbar used to hold a full durbar in the Diwan-i-Aam. Here he attended to daily routine busi-ness, particularly relating to forces, workshops and to the appointment and promotion of mansabdars and granting of jagirs. 

In the evening and often during night Akbar used to meet his ministers and advisers in the private audience hall called Diwan-i-Khas, where special business relating to for-eign relations and internal administration was attended to.


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