NCERT / CBSE NOTES : Chapter Summary
People in rural areas earn their living in various ways. About 60% of our country’s population is directly engaged in agriculture. The rural people in different regions of the country grow different crops.
In India, we have agricultural labourers, small farmers and big farmers. The agricultural labourers don’t possess a farm of their own. They work under big farmers. They are busy during sowing and harvesting periods.
After the harvesting period, these labourers have to look for other jobs. The small farmers own small plots of land where they grow crops. These farmers get seeds, fertilisers and pesticides from the traders on loan. To repay their loan, these farmers are forced to sell their crops to a trader at a much lower price.
The big farmers own huge farms. They also run businesses. Many labourers and small farmers depend upon collection from the forest, animal husbandry, dairy produce, fishing and other tasks to earn additional income.
Along the coastal areas, fishing is extensively carried out. During the monsoon seasons, the fishermen have to take up other jobs to make a living. People in rural areas are unable to find enough work to keep them employed throughout the year.
Q1. List the non farming activities done in the Kalpattu village.
(i) Making baskets, utensils, pots, bricks and bullock-carts.
(ii) There are people who provide services such as blacksmiths, nurses, teachers, washer men, weavers, barbers, and cycle repair mechanics.
(iii)There are also some shopkeepers and traders.
Q2. Name the crops which were grown in the village.
Paddy is the main crop that is grown in irrigated lands. Cotton, sugar cane and plantain are also grown. There are some mango orchards and coconut groves as well.
Q3. What are the important sources of livelihood for the people in rural areas?
- collection from the forest,
- selling milk to the village cooperative society or taking milk to the nearby town,
- animal husbandry,
- fishing etc
Q4. Why people living in rural areas move to different places?
Not being able to earn money throughout the year forces people in many rural areas to travel long distances in search of work. This travel, or migration, takes place during particular seasons.
Q5. What lead farmers to take loans from other people?
Our farmers need to borrow money to purchase basic things like seeds, fertilisers and pesticides. Often they borrow this money from moneylenders. If the seeds are not of good quality or pests attack their crop or if the monsoon does not bring enough rain there can be a major crop failure.
When this happens farmers sometimes are unable to pay back their loans. And, for the family to survive, they may even have to borrow more money. Soon the loan becomes so large that no matter what they earn, they are unable to repay. This is when we can say they are caught in debt.
Q6. How is the work of Raman different from that of Thulasi?
Raman is a labourer. During crop production he sprays pesticides in the fields. But when there is no work on the farm he finds work outside like either loading sand from the river or stone from the quarry nearby. This is sent by truck to be used in nearby towns to make houses.
Thulasi is also a labourer. But apart from working on the land, she does all the tasks at home as well. She cooks food for her family, clean the house and wash clothes. She goes to the nearby forest to collect firewood, fetches water from the bore well and collect groceries for the house.
Q7. Why does Sekar not go to the town market to get a better price for his paddy?
As Sekar is a small farmer he had borrowed seeds and fertilisers as a loan from the trader. To pay back this loan he has to sell his crop to him at a lower price than what he would get in the market.
Q8. What do you think the government can do to help farmers like Sekar when they get into debt?
The government can take following measures-
· It can open agriculture banks to help the farmers get good quality seeds, fertilizers, agricultural equipments etc.
· Debt relief schemes can be implemented.
· Loan waiver can be given.
· Loan at low interest rates can be provided to the farmers.