NCERT / CBSE NOTES : Chapter Summary
Municipal Corporation is a local body that is responsible for governing a city with a population of more than ten lakh.
Municipal Corporation is called as Municipal Council in cities and towns with a population of less than ten lakh.
A municipal corporation has several departments such as the sanitation, education, garden, health, and garden department working under it.
Each of these departments is headed by an officer who directly reports to the Commissioner. The commissioner executes decisions taken by various departments of a municipal corporation. The Commissioner along with other officers of the Municipal Corporation also implements the decisions taken by different wards of a city.
For better administration, every city is divided into different wards. Every ward has a ward councillor, a representative elected by people staying in that particular ward.
The ward councillor addresses the problems faced by the people residing in his or her ward.
The Commissioner along with other officers of the Municipal Corporation also implements the decisions taken by different wards of a city.
Larger issues affecting the entire city are resolved by Committees which are nothing but groups of councillors from different wards.
Q1. Why did Bachchu Manjhi come to the city?
Bachchu Manjhi comes from a village in Bihar where he worked as a mason. His family don't own land and he did not get masonry work regularly in the village. Hence the income that he earned was not sufficient for his family and has to come to the city for earning his livelihood.
Q2. List the occupations practised by people on the streets.
(i) Vegetable vender
(iii) News paper seller
(vi) Cycle repairer
Q3. Describe the life of people “living on the streets”.
· The people working on the road may sometimes sell things or repair them or provide a service to the people.
· They work on their own. They are not employed by anyone and therefore have to organise their own work.
· They have to plan how much to purchase, as well as where and how to set up their shops. Their shops are usually temporary structures.
· They can be asked to dismantle their shops at any time by the police. They have no security.
· Vendors sell things that are often prepared at home by their families who purchase, clean, sort and make them ready to sell.
Q4. What steps are been taken by the government to help people on the streets?
· Street vending is now recognised as an activity for general benefit and as a right of people to earn their livelihood.
· Hawking zones have been suggested for towns and cities.
· It has also been suggested that mobile vendors should be allowed to move around freely.
· Govt. is setting Hawkers committees to take decisions relating to them.
Q5. Describe the life of people working in the market?
· A market consists of variety of big and small shops. For these shops, the shop owners buy things from different places.
· Most businesspersons manage their own shops or business. They are not employed by anyone. But, they do employ a number of other workers as supervisors and helpers.
· In order to run the shop/ showroom properly they advertise in various newspapers, cinema theatres, television and radio channels.
· They may have to pay rent for their shop and other variety of taxes.
· These are permanent shops that are given a licence to do business by the municipal corporation. The Municipal Corporation also decides on which day of the week the market has to remain closed.
· The market can also have small offices and shops that provide services, such as banks, courier services and others.
Q6. What benefits does Sudha get along with her salary?
· Savings for old age: A part of her salary is kept in a fund with the government. She will earn interest on these savings. When she retires from this job she will get this money and she can then live on that.
· Holidays: She gets off on Sundays and national holidays. She also gets some days as annual leave.
· Medical facilities for her family: Her company pays the medical expenses up to a certain amount for her and her family members. She gets medical leave if she falls ill and her salary is not cut if she takes this leave.