Type and levels of Disabilities

The disabilities can be broadly classified into the following categories. These categories can be further classified on the basis of level of problems and type of problem.

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(i) Visual Impairment

(a) Refractive errors-short sight or long sight.
(b) Partial vision or low vision. who have difficulty in reading print even after wearing spectacles.
(c) Totally blind.

(ii) Hearing Disabilities

(a) Slight hearing loss - (26-40db) decibels.
(b) Mild hearing loss - (41-55 db) decibels.
(c) Moderate hearing loss (56-70 db) decibels
(d) Severe hearing loss (71-90 db) decibels
(e) Profound hearing loss (91db or more) - Hearing aid does not help

(iii) Mentally Retarded

(a) Slow learners - (I Q 75 to 89 IQ)
(b) Mild mentally retarded (IQ 60-65 to 70-75 IQ)
Type and levels of Disabilities and Identification , CDP Notes, CTET Exam Notes, Child Development & Pedagogy Study Material(c) Moderate Mentally Retarded. (IQ 35-40 to 60-65 IQ)
(d) Severely retarded (IQ 20-25 to 30-35 IQ)
(e) Profoundly retarded (IQ 20-25 and below)
(a) Slow learners - (IQ 75 to 89 IQ)
(b) Mild mentally retarded (IQ 60-65 to 70-75 IQ)
(c) Moderate mentally retarded (IQ 35-40 to 60-65 IQ)
(d) Severely retarded (IQ 20-25 to 30-35 IQ)
(e) Profoundly retarded (IQ 20-25 and below)

(iv) Physically Handicapped or Orthopedic Handicap

(a) Polio of hands or legs (Upper or lower limbs)
(b) Central nervous system disorder (cerebral palsy, Epilepsy)
(c) Congenital malformations of limbs (e.g. Spinal bifida, or Club foot, or bow legs)
(d) Diseases of the muscular skeletal system.
(e) Muscular dystrophy or wastage of muscles in arms or legs.
(f) Rigidity of joints - due to Rheumatoid arthritis.

(v) Learning Disabilities

(a) Reading disabilities (dyslexia)
(b) Disability to comprehend or speak - Dysphasia
(c) Writing disabilities - Dysgraphia
(d) Arithmetic disabilities (dyscalculia)
(e) Disability to express orally - aphasia
(f) Disability to read or write printed matter - Alexia

(vi) Speech Disabilities

(a) Stammering - Difficulty in pronouncing certain Sounds.
(b) Stuttering - Fluency in speech lacking
(c) Voice Disorders - Cannot control pitch, loudness
(d) Articulations - Problems, Omissions, and Substitution of words.

(vii) Chronic Health Problems

(a) Congenital heart problems - viz Mitral stenosis
(b) Chronic bronchitis and asthma
(c) Juvenile diabetes
(d) Tuberculosis

(viii) Emotional Disturbance leading to Behavior Problems

(a) Attention deficit disorder (hyper activity)
(b) Aggressive/Violent behavior
(c) Hyper active - or Hypoactive
(d) Anxiety disorder
(e) Shy and withdrawal tendencies
(f) Depression
(g) Conduct disorders
(h) Obsessive-compulsive disorder
(i) Phobia-fear of darkness, heights or depths.
(j) Psychosis.

Identification of children with disabilities

Hearing Impaireda) Identification Checklist
b) Audiometric Test
c) E.N.T. surgeon
Visual Impaireda) Identification Checklist
b) Shellen Chart
c) Ophthalmologist for refractive errors and correction.
Mentally Retarded
Learning Disabled
a) Identification Checklist
b) Progress in school
c) I.Q. Test administered by a clinical Psychologist
d) Developmental Pediatrician and neurophysician
Speech problemsa) ENT Surgeon
b) Speech pathologist/Therapist
c) Audiologist
Health Problemsa) Physician
b) Chest Physician
c) Pediatrician
Emotional ProblemsPsychologist/Child psychiatrist
Physical or Orthopedic Problemsa) Orthopedic Surgeon
b) Physiotherapist
c) Neuro Surgeon
d) Neurologist
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