CBSE NCERT Class VIII (8th) | Social Studies | History

Chapter  :  Civilizing the “Native”, Educating the Nation


CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer


Q1. Why did the British decide to educate the Indians?
Ans. The British in India wanted not only territorial conquest and control over revenues. They also felt that they had a cultural mission: they had to “civilize the natives”, change their customs and values.
Q2. Who was William Jones?
1.      In 1783, a person named William Jones arrived in Calcutta. He had an appointment as a junior judge at the Supreme Court that the company had set up. In addition to being an expert in law, Jones was a linguist.
2.      He had studied Greek and Latin at Oxford knew French and English, had picked up Arabic from a friend, and had also learnt Persian.
3.      At Calcutta, he began spending many hours a day with pandits who taught him  the subtleties of Sanskrit language, grammar and poetry.
4.      Jones discovered the ancient Indian heritage, mastered languages and Persian works into English. He had set upped the Asiatic society of Bengal and started a journal called Asiatic Researchers.
5.      He shared deep respect for ancient cultures, both of India and West.

Q3. Mention the name of the society set up by Jones.
Ans. Jones set up the Asiatic society of Bengal, and started a journal called Asiatic Researchers.

Q4. Describe the attitude of Colebrook towards India.
1.      Colebrook came to represent a particular attitude forwards India.
2.      He had a deep respect for ancient cultures, both of India and the West Indian civilization.
3.      He felt, had attained its glory in the ancient past, but had subsequently declined.
4.      In order to understand India it was necessary to discover the sacred and legal texts that were produced in the ancient period.
5.      For only those texts could reveal the real ideas and laws of the Hindus and Muslims, and only a new study of these texts could form the basis of future development in India.
6.      Colebrook went about discovering ancient texts, understanding their meaning translating them, and making their findings known to others.
7.      This project, he believed, would not help Indians rediscover their own heritage, and understand the lost glories of their past. In this process, the British would become the
guardians of Indian culture as well as its masters.

Q5. When was English Education Act introduced and what were its features?
Ans.  The  English  Education  Act  was  introduced  in  1835.  It  was  introduced  by  Thomas Macaulay. Its features:-
·          English  was made  the medium of instruction for higher education. English  textbook began to be produced for schools.
·          And to stop the promotion of Oriental institutions like the Calcutta Madrasa and Banaras Sanskrit College. These institutions were seen as “temples of darkness that were falling of themselves into decay”.

Q6. Write a short note on Wood’s despatch?
Ans. In 1854, the East India Company in London sent an educational despatch to the Governor- General in India. Issued by Charles Wood, the President of the Board of Control of  the Company, it has come to be known as Wood’s Despatch. Outlining the educational policy that was to be followed in India, it emphasized once again the practical benefits of a system of European learning, as opposed to Oriental knowledge.
·          European ways of life, would change their tastes and desires, and create a demand for British goods, for Indians would begin to appreciate and buy things that were produced in Europe.
·          European learning would improve the moral character of Indians. It would make them truthful and honest, and thus supply the Company with civil servants who could be trusted and depended upon.
·          Education departments of the government were set up to extend control over all matters regarding education. Steps were taken to establish a system of university education. In 1857, while the sepoys rose in revolt in Meerut and Delhi, universities were being established in Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.

Q7. What were Gandhi’s views on British Education?
Or
Why did Mahatma Gandhi think that English education has enslaved Indians?

·          Mahatma Gandhi argued that colonial education created a sense of inferiority in the minds of Indians. It made them see Western civilization as superior, and destroyed the pride they had in their own culture.
·          There was poison in this education, said Mahatma Gandhi, it was sinful, it enslaved Indians, it cast an evil spell on them.
·          Mahatma Gandhi wanted an education that could help Indians recover their sense of dignity and self – respect.
·          During the national movement he urged students to leave educational institutions in order to show the British that Indians were no longer willing to be enslaved.
·          Education in English crippled Indians, distanced them from their own social surroundings, and made them “strangers in their own lands”. Speaking a foreign tongue, despising local culture, the English educated did not know how to relate to the masses.
·          Western education, Mahatma Gandhi said, focused on reading and writing rather than  oral knowledge; it valued textbooks rather than lived experience and practical knowledge. He argued that education ought to develop a person’s mind and soul.

Q8. Write a short note on Tagore’s “abode of peace”.
Ans. Tagore wanted to set up a school where the child was happy, where she could be free and creative, where she was able to explore her own thoughts and desires. Tagore felt that childhood ought to be a time of self –learning, outside the rigid and restricting discipline of the schooling system set up by the British. Teachers had to be imaginative, understand the child, and help the child develop her curiosity. According to Tagore, the existing schools killed the natural desire of the child to be creative, her sense of wonder.
Tagore was of the view that creative learning could be encouraged only within a natural environment. So he chose to set up his school 100 kilometers away from Calcutta, in a rural setting. He saw it as an abode of peace (santiniketan), where living in harmony with nature, children could cultivate their natural creativity.

Q9. Why did William Jones feel the need to study Indian history, philosophy and law?
·        Jones shared a deep respect for ancient cultures, both of India and the West. Indian civilization, he felt, had attained its glory in the ancient past, but had subsequently declined.
·        In order to understand India it was necessary to discover the sacred and legal texts that were produced in the ancient period.
·        For only those texts could reveal the real ideas and laws of the Hindus and Muslims and only a new study of these texts could form the basis of future development in India.

Q10. Why did James Mill and Thomas Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?
Ans. James Mill thought that the British effort should met to teach what the natives wanted, or what they respected in order to please them and “win a peace in their heart”.
James Mill and Thomas Macaulay thought that European education would enable Indians to recognize the advantages that flow from the expansion of trade and commerce and make them see the importance of developing the resources of the country.
·        Introducing European ways of life would change their tastes and desires and create a demand for British goods, because Indians would begin to appreciate and buy things that were produced in Europe.
·        It would also improve the moral character of Indians. It would make them truthful and honest and thus supply the company with civil servants who could be trusted and demanded upon. It could also instill in people a sense of duty and commitment to work and develop the skills required for administration.
·        Macaulay felt that knowledge of English would allow Indians to read some of the finest literature the world had produced. It would make them aware of the developments in Western Science and philosophy. Teaching of English could civilize people.

Q11. Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to teach children handicraft?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi wanted to teach children handicraft because that would develop their minds and their capacity to understand. This would also enable them to know how different things operated. This would help them to have lived experience and practical knowledge.

Q12. What according to the British was their responsibility towards India?
Ans. They felt that institutions should be set up to encourage the study of ancient Indian texts and teach Sanskrit and Persian literature and poetry. The officials also thought that Hindus and Muslims ought to be taught what they were already familiar and what they valued and treasured not subjects that were alien to them. Only then, they believed, could the British hope to win a place in the hearts of the “native”, only then could the alien rubbers expect to be respected by their subjects.

Q13. Mention the two schools of thought which wanted to introduce education in India? Ans. They felt that institutions should be set up to encourage the study of ancient Indian texts and teach Sanskrit and Persian literature and poetry. The officials also thought that Hindus and Muslims ought to be taught what they were already familiar and what they valued and treasured not subjects that were alien to them. Only then, they believed could the British hope to win a place in the hearts of the “native”, only then could the alien rulers expect to be respected by their subjects.

Q14. Describe the differences of opinion between the orientalists and the Anglicists.

Ans. ORIENTALISTS
·        Orientalists thought in order to understand India it was necessary to discover the sacred and legal texts that were produced in the ancient period.
·        They thought that Eastern education would help Indian rediscover their own heritage and understand the lost glories of their past as well as it would help the British become the guardians of Indian culture and masters.
·        They also believed for the British, in order to win a place in the hearts of the “natives”. Indians ought to be taught what they were already familiar with once what they valued not subjects that were alien to them.

ANGLICISTS
·        Anglicists said that knowledge of the East were full of errors and unscientific thought, Eastern literature was non serious and light hearted.
·        Anglicist thought the aim of educations ought to be teach what was useful and practical. So Indians should be made familiar with the scientific and technical advances that Europe had made.
·        They felt that knowledge of English would make the Indians aware of the developments in Western science and philosophy. Teaching of English could this be a way of civilizing people, changing their castes, values and culture.

Q15. What steps did the East India Company take to improve the system of vernacular educations?
·        East India Company appointed a number of government pundits, each in charge  of looking after four to five schools
·        The task of the pundit was to visit the pathshalas and try and improve the standard of teaching.

·         Each guru was asked to submit periodic reports and take classes according to a regular timetable.
·         Teaching  was  now  based  on   textbooks  and  learning  was  tested   through  annual examination.
·         Students were asked to pay regular fees, attend regular classes, sit on fixed seats and obey the new rules of discipline.
·         Pathshalas which accepted the new rules were supported through government grants. Those who were unwilling to work within the new system received no government support.

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