CBSE NCERT Class VIII (8th) | Social Studies | Geography

Chapter  :  Human Resources

CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer

Q1. Why are people considered as a resource ?
A1. People are a nation’s greatest resource. Nature’s bounty becomes significant only when people find it useful. It is people with their demands and abilities that turn them into ‘resources’.

Q2.What do you understand by the following:-
a)      The pattern of population distribution.
b)      Density of population.
c)      Population change.
d)      Natural Growth rate.
A2. a) The pattern of population distribution- The way in which people are spread across the earth surface is known as the pattern of population distribution.

b)    Density of population-Population density is the number of people living in a unit area of the earth’s surface. It is normally expressed as per square km. The average density of population in the whole world is 45 persons per square km. Average density of population in India is 324 persons per square km.

c)    Population change-The population change refers to change in the number of people during a specific time.

d)    Natural Growth Rate-The difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country is called the natural growth rate.

Q3. Describe the distribution of population in the world?
A3. The distribution of population in the world is extremely uneven. . Some areas are very crowded and some are sparely populated.
1)    More than 90 per cent of the world’s population lives in about 10 per cent of the land surface.
2)   The densely populated areas- The crowded areas are south and south
east Asia, Europe and north eastern North America.
3)    The sparsely populated areas- Very few people live in high latitude areas, tropical deserts, high mountains and areas of equatorial forests.
4)    Almost three-quarters of the world’s people live in two continents Asia and Africa.
5)    Sixty per cent of the world’s people stay in just 10 countries. All of them have more than a 100 million people.

Q4. What are the causes of the uneven distribution of the population in the world ?
A4. The causes for the uneven distribution of the population of the world are-

1) TOPOGRAPHY-People always prefer to live on plains rather than mountains and plateaus because these areas are suitable for farming, manufacturing and service activities. The Ganga plains are the most densely populated areas of the world while mountains like Andes, Alps and Himalayas are sparsely populated.

2)    CLIMATE -People usually avoid extreme climates that are very hot or very cold like Sahara desert, polar regions of Russia, Canada and Antarctica.

3)    SOIL- Fertile soils provide suitable land for agriculture. Fertile plains such as Ganga and Brahmaputra in India, Hwang-He, Chang Jiang in China and the Nile in Egypt are densely populated.

4)    WATER- People prefer to live in the areas where fresh water is easily available. The river valleys of the world are densely populated while deserts have spare population.

5)-MINERALS-Areas with mineral deposits are more populated. Diamond mines of South Africa and discovery of oil in the Middle east lead to settling of people in
these areas.


1)    SOCIAL-Areas of better housing, education and health facilities are more densely populated e.g., Pune

2)   CULTURAL-Places with religion or cultural significance attract people. Varanasi, Jerusalem and Vatican city are some examples.

3) ECONOMIC-Industrial areas provide employment opportunities. Large number of people got attracted to these areas. Osaka in Japan and Mumbai in India are two densely populated areas.

Q5.The world population has grown very rapidly. Why ?
A5. The world population has grown very rapidly because due to changes in the number of births and deaths. The rapid increase in natural growth that is difference between birth rate and death rate is also causing population to grow rapidly. The main reason for the growth was the better food supplies and medicinal facilities because of which death rate decreased.

Q6.Explain the factors influencing population change ? A6. The main factors influencing population change were-
1)    Birth rate -Births are usually measured using the birth rate i.e. the number of live births per 1,000 people. When birth rate is more than death rate, it is population increase. It increases the population.

2)   Death rate-Deaths are usually measured using the death rate i.e. the number of deaths per 1,000 people. When death rate is more than birth rate, it is population decrease. It decreases the population.

3)   Migration- Migration is the movement of people in and out of an area.  It changes the size of the population. Migration is of two types- Emigration and Immigration. Emigrants are the people who leave a country while immigrants are those who arrive in a country.

Q7. How migration is responsible for changes in the population size ?
A7. Migration is another way by which population size changes. People may move within a country or between countries.
1)       Emigrants are people who leave a country.
2)      Immigrants are those who arrive in a country. Countries like the United States of America and Australia have gained in-numbers by in- migration or imigration. Sudan is an example of a country that has experienced a loss in population numbers due to out-migration or emigration.

Q8. Bring out the difference between the following-
a)      Emigration and immigration.
b)      Population increase and Population decrease.

1)    When a person leaves a country.
2)    It decreases the population of the country.
1)    When a person enters a new country.
2)    It increases the population of the country.
Population increase
Population decrease
1)       When birth rate is more than death rate.
2)      It increases the population of the country.
1)       When the death rate is more than birth rate.
2)      It decreases the population of the country.

Q9. What is meant by Population composition ?
A9. Population composition refers to the structure of the population that is number of males and females, age group, education, occupation, income levels and healthof population.

Q10.What is the importance of knowing Population composition ?
A10. The composition of population helps us to know the number of males or females, to which age group they belong to, how educated they are and what type of occupations they are employed in, what their income levels and health conditions of the population.

Q11. What is Population pyramid? How does it help in understanding the population of the country?
A11. Population pyramid is also called the age sex pyramid. Population pyramid shows
1)    The total population which is divided into various age groups, e.g., 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years.
2)   The percentage of the total population, subdivided into males and females, in each of those groups.
3)   The numbers of children (below 15 years) are shown at the bottom and reflect the level of births. The size of the top shows the numbers of aged people (above 65 years) and reflects the number of deaths.
4)   It shows the dependent population and independent population. The dependent population includes the children and the aged population while the independent population is the working population between the age group of 15 to 65 years.

Q12. Why the population pyramid of Kenya is broad at the base and narrow towards the top?
A12. The population pyramid of Kenya is broad at the base and narrow towards the top because many children are born, a large percentage of them die in their infancy, relatively few become adults and there are very few old people.

Q13. Explain the population pyramid of India ?
A13. Death rates (especially amongst the very young) is decreasing, the pyramid is broad in the younger age groups, because more infants survive to adulthood because of better medical facilities.
Such populations contain a relatively large number of young people and which means a strong and expanding labour force.

Q14. Explain the population pyramid of Japan?
A14. The pyramid of Japan has narrow at the base which means low birth rate. Decreased death rates allow less number of people to reach old age. The working population is more compared to the children and old population.

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