CBSE NCERT Class VIII (8th) | Social Studies | Geography

Chapter  :  Industries


CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer


Q1. What do you understand by secondary activities?
A1. In the Secondary activities or manufacturing there is change of raw materials into products of more value to people. For example- pulp changes into paper and paper into a note book. These represent the two stages of the manufacturing process.
The paper made from pulp and cloth made from cotton had value added to them at each stage of the manufacturing process. In this way the finished product has more value and utility than the raw material that it is made from.

Q2. What do you mean by the term industry?
A2. Industry refers to an economic activity that isconcerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services. Thus we have ironand steel industry (production of goods), coal miningindustry (extraction of coal) and tourism industry (service provider).

Q3. Classify industries on the basis of the following heading with the help of examples:-
1) Raw material.        2) Size.        3) Ownership.
A3.On the basis of raw materials industries can be divided into the following types:-
a). Agro based industries use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile are examples of agro- based industries.
b)    Mineral based industriesare primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. Iron from iron ore is used as raw material for the manufacture of a number of other products, such as heavy machinery, building materials and railway coaches.
c)     Marine based industriesuse products from the sea and oceans as raw materials. Industries processing sea food or manufacturing fish oil are some examples.
d) Forest based industriesutilise forest produce as raw materials.The industries associated with forests are pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture and buildings.

On the basis of the size, industries can be classified into the following types:-
a) smallscale. Cottage or household industries are a type of small scale industry where the products are manufactured by hand, by the artisans.eg- Basket weaving and pottery. It uses lesser amount of capital and technology.

b) large scale industries. It use more amount of capital and technology. It produce large volumes of products. Eg- Production of automobiles and heavy machinery are large scale industries.

On the basis of ownership, industries can be classified into the following types-
a)    Private sector industriesare owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.
b)   Public sector industries are owned and operated by the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited.
b) Joint sectorindustriesare owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. MarutiUdyog Limited is an example of joint sector industry.
c) Co-operative sectorindustries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy are success stories of a co-operative venture.

Q4. Distinguish between the following:-
1)    Agro based industry and mineral based industry.
2)   Public sector and Joint sector A4.


Agro based industry
Mineral based industry
1)

2)

3)

4)
These drive their raw material from agriculture.

These provide employment in rural areas.

These industries are labour intensive.

Examples- Textile, sugar, food processing and dairy products.
These derive their raw materials from minerals.

These provide employment both in urban and rural areas.

These industries are capital intensive.

Examples- Iron and steel, machines tools and building materials.


Public sector industry
Joint sector industry
1)
The public sector industries are
Joint sector are owned and

owned and operated by the
operated by the state and

government.
individuals or a group of individuals.
2)

MarutiUdyog Limited is an example
,Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and
of joint sector.
Steel Authority of India Limited.

Q5. Explain the factors influencing the location of industries? 
A5.The factors affecting the locationof industries are:-
1)    Nearness to theraw material-Industries are located near the source of the raw material. The industry which uses heavy raw material and produce large quantity located near the source of the raw material. For example, Jute industries are located in West Bengal, cotton textile industry is located in Mumbai and Ahmedabad.

2)   Nearness to power- Power is needed for processing raw materials. The industries which consume huge quantity of power are located near the sources of power.

3)   Availability of water- It helps in centralization of industries. It influences the establishment of agro-based industries like cotton textile, jute textile etc

4)    Labour- No industry can function without labour. Even the modern computerized machines need to be operated by human beings only. Labour may be skilled or unskilled.

5)    Transport facilities- We need good transport facilities to bring the raw materials to the industries as well as to take the finished goods to the market. Without proper transport facilities the factory cannot run.

6)    Nearness to the market- Industries produce lot of goods but if all the goods are not consumed then these industries may be closed. There is a need of the market to sell the goods to the people.

Q6. What do you understand by industrial system?
A6. An industrial system consists of 
INPUTS----- PROCESSES------- OUTPUTS
1)    The inputs are the raw materials, labour andcosts of land, transport, power and other infrastructure.
2)   The processes include a wide range of activities that convert the raw material into finished products.
3)   The outputs are the end product and the income earned from it

Q7. What is industrial region ? Name the industrial region of the world and India?
A7.Industrial regions emerge when a number of industries locate close to each other and share the benefits of their closeness.
Major industrial regions of the world are eastern North America, western and central Europe, Eastern Europe and eastern Asia.
Industrial regions of India are Mumbai- Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamilnadu region, Hugli region etc

Q8. List the major industries of the world and where they are located? 
A8.The world’s major industries are the iron and steel industry, the textile industry and the information technology industry.
1)    The countries in which iron and steel industry is located are Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia.
2)   Textile industry is concentrated in India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan. 3) The major hubs of Information technology industry are the Silicon valley of Central California and the Bangalore region of India.

Q9. What do you mean by emerging industries?
A9. Emerging industries are recently developed industries and are also known as ‘Sunrise Industries’. These include Information technology Wellness, Hospitality and Knowledge.

Q10. Name the inputs, processes and output of iron and steel industries?
A10. 1) The inputs for the industry include raw materials such as iron ore, coal and limestone, along with labour, capital, site and other infrastructure.
2)    The process of converting iron ore into steel involves many stages. The raw material is put in the blast furnace where it undergoes smelting. It is then refined.
3)    The output obtained is steel which may be used by other industries as raw material.

Q11.What is the importance of steel and its alloys?
A11. Steel is tough and it can easily be shaped, cut, or made into wire. Special alloys of steel can be made by adding small amounts of other metals such as aluminium, nickel, and copper. Alloys give steel unusual hardness, toughness, or ability to resist rust.

Q12. Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?
A12. Iron and steel industries are referred to as the backbone of modern industry because:-
1)    It provided their finished goods to other industries like machines, tools, implements etc to the other industries.
2)   Almost everything we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with tools and machinery of these metals. Ships, trains, trucks, and autos are made largely of steel. Even the safety pins and the needles you use are made from steel. Oil wells are drilled with steel machinery. Steel pipelines transport oil. Minerals are mined with steel equipment. Farm machines are mostly steel. Large buildings have steel framework.

Q13.List the important steel producing centres of India?
A13. The important steel producing centres such asBhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaroare situated in a region that spreads over four states — WestBengal, Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh. Bhadravatiand Vijay Nagar in Karnataka, Vishakhapatnam in AndhraPradesh, Salem in Tamil Nadu are other important steelcentresutilising local resources.

Q14. Why Sakchi was chosen to set up the steel plants?
A14. Sakchi was chosen to set up the steel plant forseveral reasons:-
1)    This place was only 32 km away fromKalimati station on the Bengal-Nagpur railway line.
2)   Itwas close to the iron ore, coal and manganese depositsas well as to Kolkata, which provided a large market.
3)   TISCO, gets coal from Jharia coalfields, and iron ore,limestone, dolomite and manganese from Orissa andChhattisgarh.
4)   The Kharkai and Subarnarekha riversensured sufficient water supply.
5)   Government initiativesprovided adequate capital for its later development

Q15. Explain the locational advantages for establishing steel plant in Pittsburg? 
A15. Pittsburgis an important steel city of the UnitedStates of America. The locationaladvantagesfor establishing steel plant in Pittsburg are-
1)    The raw materialsuch as coal is available locally.
2)   Iron ore comesfrom the iron mines at Minnesota, about 1500 km fromPittsburgh
3)   The transport facilities- Between  these mines and Pittsburgh is oneof the world’s best routes for shipping ore cheaply – thefamous Great Lakes waterway.
4)   Trains carry the orefrom the Great Lakes to the Pittsburgh area.
5)   The water supply is provide by Ohio,the Monogahela and Allegheny rivers.

Q16. Name the natural and man madefibre?
A16. Natural fibres are obtained from wool, silk, cotton, linenand jute. Man madefibres include nylon, polyester, acrylic and rayon.

Q17. “India has a glorious tradition of producing good quality cotton textile” Eleborate the statement.
A17. Before the British rule, Indian hand spunand hand woven cloth already had a wide market. TheMuslins of Dhaka, Chintzes of Masulipatnam, Calicos ofCalicut and Gold-wrought cotton pieces of Burhanpur,Surat and Vadodara were known worldwide for theirquality and design. But the production of hand woven cotton textile was expensive and time consuming. Hence, traditional cotton textile industry could not face the competition from the new textile mills of the West, which produced cheap and good quality fabrics.

Q18. Name the important producers of cotton textiles?
A18. China, Japan and USA are the important producers of cotton textiles. 

Q19. What are the changes made in making of the cotton cloth?
A19. The cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. Till the industrial revolution in the 18th century, cotton cloth was made using hand spinning techniques (wheels) and looms. In 18th century power looms (machines run by power) facilitated the development of cotton textile industry, first in  the Great Britain and later in other parts of the world.

Q20. List the factors responsible for the establishment of textile mill in Mumbai in 1854?
A20. The factors responsible for the establishment of textile mill in Mumbai in 1854 are-
1)       The Warm and moist climate.
2)      Port forimporting machinery.
3)      Availability of raw material.
4)      Skilled labour.

Q21. Explain the factors responsible for establishing cotton textile industry in Ahmedabad in 1859?
A21 The factors responsible for establishing cotton textile industry in Ahmedabad in 1859 are-
1)    Ahmedabad is situatedin the heart of a cotton growing area. This ensures easy
availability of raw material.
2)   The humid climate is ideal for spinning and weaving.
3)   The flat terrain and easy availability of land is suitable for the establishment of the mills.
4)   The densely populated states of Gujarat and Maharashtra provide both skilled and semi-skilled labour.
4) Well developed road and railway network permits easy transportation of textiles to different parts of the country, thus providing easy access to the market.
5) Mumbai port nearby facilitates import of machinery and export of cotton textiles.

Q22. Explain the geographical factors which are making Osaka as the ‘Manchester of Japan’.
A22. The geographical factors which are making Osaka as the ‘Manchester of Japan’are as follows-
1)    The extensive plain around Osaka ensured thatland was easily available for the growth of cotton mills.
2)   Warm humid climate is well suited to spinning andweaving. The river Yodo provides sufficient water forthe mills.
3)    Labour is easily available. Location of portfacilitates import of raw cotton and for exporting textiles.
4)    The textile industry at Osaka depends completely uponimported raw materials.
5)    Cotton is imported from Egypt, India, China and USA.
6)    The finished product is mostly exported and has a good market due to good quality
and low price.

Q23. What do you understand by Information Technology?
A23. The information technology industry dealsin the storage, processing and distribution ofinformation.

Q24. List the factors affecting the location of the Information industry? A24. The main factors guiding thelocation of Information industries are-
1)    Resource availability,
2)   Cost
3)   Infrastructure.

Q25. Explain the locational advantages of Information technology inBangalore and California?
A25. The locational advantages of Information technology in Bangalore are-
1)    Bangalore has the largest number of educationalinstitutions and IT colleges in India.
2)   The city was considered dust free with low rents and cost of living.
3)   The state government of Karnataka was the first to announce an IT Policy in 1992.
4)   The city has the largest and widest availability of skilled managers with work experience.
5)   The city is known for its mild climate throughout the year.

The locational advantages of Information technology in California are-
1)    Close to some of the most advanced scientific and technological centres in the world
2)   Pleasant climate with an attractive and a clean environment. It has plenty of space for development and future expansion.
3)   Located close to major roads and airports.
4)   Good access to markets and skilled workforce.
5)   Silicon Valley, is a part of Santa ClaraValley, located next to the Rocky Mountains of North America. The area has temperate climate with the temperatures rarely dropping below 0 degrees centigrade.

Q26. Name the information technology hubs in metropolitan centres of India? A26. The information technology hubs in metropolitan centres of India are Mumbai, New Delhi, Hyderabad and Chennai.

Q27. Name the important cities of information technology in India?
A27. The important cities of information technology in India are Gurgaon, Pune, Thiruvanthapuram, Kochi and Chandigarh.

Q28. Why do high technology industries group together?
A28.High technology industries are grouped together because of the following reasons- 
1) It can be located near main road/ highways for an easy access.
2)    Firms can benefit from exchange of knowledge.
3)    Services and facilities such as roads, car parks and waste disposal can be organized efficiently.

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