NCERT / CBSE NOTES | Class 8th (VIII) : Chapter Summary


Classification of Industries

An industry is at the heart of a country’s economy; it includes manufacturing of goods, extraction of metals and provision of services. All the products available for use in the market are finished products, and are the result of some industry.
An industry can be classified on the basis of raw material, size and ownership.

Any material that we get from our natural surroundings to be used by an industry is called raw material. Plant- and animal-based products are used as raw material in food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy and leather products, which are all examples of agro-based industries.

There is another type of industry that is based on the produce derived from forests. This is known as forest-based industry, and is responsible for producing paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture, equipment and buildings.

Industries are classified on the basis of ownership as well, i.e. privately owned, cooperative or state-owned. Privately owned industry means it is owned by an individual or a group like the Tata group. State-owned or public sector, means they are owned and operated by the government like Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL).

A partnership between the state and an individual or a group is called the joint sector like Maharashtra Scooters Limited, which is a partnership between the Government of Maharashtra and the Bajaj Group.

The cooperative sector was formed to play a major role in the advancement of agriculture and related industries. In this sector, the state facilitates the producers, suppliers and even workers to own the enterprise like the Amul Dairy.

Industries are classified as large-scale or small-scale depending,  on the amount of capital invested, the number of people employed and the volume of production.

A small-scale industry needs a lesser amount of capital and technology inputs. A large-scale industry has automated production, and is capital- and manpower-intensive, requires heavy investment in plant and machinery. 

Factors Affecting Location of Industries

There are several factors that affect the location of industries like the availability of raw material, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market. Industries are usually located in temperate areas, sea ports and coal mines. When many industries are located close by, the place becomes known as an industrial region.

This is the reason why a government provides incentives like subsidised power, low transport cost and infrastructure to industries located in the backward regions of the country.

The three steps involved in an industrial cycle are: Input, Processes and Output.

The first step is putting together the inputs, like raw material, labour, cost of land, transport, power and other infrastructure. The second step is the process, which includes a wide range of activities that convert the raw material into finished goods like ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing. The final step is the finished product or the output that we use.

The major industrial regions in India are the Mumbai-Pune region, Bangalore–Tamil Nadu region, Hugli region, Ahmadabad–Baroda region, Chhota Nagpur industrial region, Vishakhapatnam–Guntur belt and the Kollam–Thiruvanathapuram industrial belt.

Industrial workers are sometimes required to work in a dangerous environment. Any lapse in the regular maintenance of technical equipment or irresponsible handling of hazardous material may lead to accidents.

There are some risk reduction measures, which, if followed, can prevent large-scale disasters like:
  • Industrial areas should be on the outskirts of a city or town, or located far away from residential areas.
  • People in the vicinity of the industrial area should be aware of the hazardous materials handled in these industries and their effects on humans in case of an accident.
  • Improvement in the fire warning systems, fire fighting systems and in pollution dispersion qualities and limiting toxic storage capacity within these industries will reduce the risk of a large-scale disaster considerably.

Distribution of Major Industries - Steel

Steel is a major industry for all countries, because steel is a feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for almost all other industries.

Major steel industries are located in countries like Germany, the USA, China, Japan and Russia. Raw material such as iron ore, coal and limestone, together with labour, capital, location and other infrastructure are important inputs for this industry.

The process through which metals are extracted from their ores by heating beyond their melting point is known as smelting.

The important steel producing centres in India are at Burnpur and Durgapur in West Bengal, Bokaro and Jamshedpur in Jharkhand, Bhilai in Chhattisgarh and Rourkela in Orissa.

India’s steel production has increased from one million tonne in 1947 to 30 million tonnes in 2002. Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited, or TISCO, was set up in Jamshedpur before independence.

Pittsburg in the USA is an important steel city. The Pittsburg area has many factories other than steel mills. These use steel as raw material to make many different products such as railroad equipment, heavy machinery and rails.

Distribution of Industries - Cotton Textile

The word ‘textile’ is derived from a Latin word, texere, which means ‘to weave.’ Fibres are the raw material of the textile industry and can be natural or man-made. Natural fibres are obtained from wool, silk, cotton, linen and jute while man-made fibres include nylon, polyester, acrylic and rayon.

Till the industrial revolution, cotton cloth was made using hand spinning techniques with the help of spinning wheels and looms. The Industrial Revolution was started with the mechanization of the textile industry.

The cotton gin was introduced during the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century and brought about a massive growth in the production of cotton. The first country to have a power loom or a cotton textile industry was Great Britain.

At present, the major textile industries are concentrated in India, Hong Kong and South Korea.
In India, the first textile mill was established at Fort Gloster near Kolkata in 1818. The first successful modern textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.

The warm and moist climate, and the availability of raw material, skilled labour and ready ports for importing machinery, resulted in a rapid expansion of the industry in the region. The cotton mills were concentrated in the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat initially because of suitable climate.

The industry today has spread to other parts of India like Coimbatore, Kanpur, Chennai, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Puducherry and Panipat. About 1/3rd of the Indian textile industry’s total production is export-oriented and the biggest importer of Indian textile is the USA.

Ahmadabad in Gujarat flourished as the second largest textile city of India after Mumbai. The city is surrounded by cotton fields, which ensure easy availability of raw material. Besides suitable climate, this area has a flat terrain and easy access to skilled and semi-skilled labour from the densely populated states of Gujarat and the neighbouring state of Maharashtra.

The flat terrain enables transportation of textiles to different parts of the country, and subsequently to the markets.

The port city of Osaka is the hub of the textile industry in Japan. The textile industry developed in Osaka due to several geographical factors similar to Ahmedabad and Mumbai in India.

Information Technology

Information Technology or ‘IT’ is the study, design and implementation of computer-based information systems. IT deals with the use of technology, i.e. the hardware and the software, to manage and process information. It enables the conversion, transmission, storage and retrieval of data.

The first state government in India to announce an IT Policy was Karnataka in 1992. Two important hubs for the IT industry in the world are Silicon Valley in California, USA, and Bangalore, which is called the Silicon Valley of India.

The main factors that influence the location of these industries are resource availability, cost and infrastructure.

Silicon chips are electronic equipments consisting of small crystals of silicon, a semiconductor, which is used to carry out a number of electronic functions in an integrated circuit.

San Jose and Bangalore are the leading centres for the IT industry owing to certain environmental advantages like a pleasant climate and a clean environment. The respective governments have allocated plenty of space for development and future expansion. Both cities have good infrastructure, highly skilled people and adequate financial resources.
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