CBSE NCERT Class VIII (8th) | Social Studies | Geography

Chapter  :  Mineral and Power Resources

CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer

Q1.    Define mineral. Give example also.
A1.     Mineral-  A  naturally  occurring  substance  that  has  a  definite  chemical composition is a mineral ex iron, diamond and petroleum etc.

Q2.    How minerals are formed?
A2. Minerals  are formed in different types of geological  environments,  under varying conditions. They are created by natural processes without any human interference.

Q3.    Classify minerals on the basis of composition?
A3.     On the basis of composition minerals can be classified into metallic and non metallic minerals.

Q4.    What is the importance of power resource ?
A4.     Power or energy plays a vital role in our lives. We also need power for industry, agriculture, transport, communication and defense.

Q5.    How fossil fuels are formed ?
A5.     Remains of plants and animals which were buried under the earth for millions of years got converted by the heat and pressure into fossil fuels.

Q6.    Why coal is referred to as buried sunshine ?
A6      Coal is referred to as buried sunshine because of the following reasons :-
1)      It produces energy.
2)      It is buried under the layers of the earth.

Q7.    What is thermal power ?
A7. This is the most abundantly found fossil fuel. It is used as a domestic fuel, in industries such as iron and steel, steam engines and to generate electricity. Electricity from coal is called thermal power.

Q8.    Name the leading producer of coal in the world and India ?
A8. The leading coal producers of the world are China, USA, Germany, Russia, South Africa and France. The coal producing areas of India are Raniganj, Jharia, Dhanbad and Bokaro in Jharkhand.

Q9.    Where petroleum is found ?
A9.     It is found between the layers of rocks and is drilled from oil fields located in off-shore and coastal areas.

Q10.  What are the by products of petroleum ?
A10. The byproducts of petroleum are diesel, petrol , kerosene, wax, plastic And lubricants.

Q11.  Why petroleum is referred to as black gold ? A11.   Petroleum is referred to as black because:-
1)   Its derivatives like diesel, kerosene and petrol are very expensive.
2)   It is black in colour when drilled.

Q12.  Name the petroleum producing countries ?
A12.   The chief petroleum producing countries are Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The other major producers are USA, Russia, Venezuela ,Algeria and India.

Q13.  Name the leading producers of petroleum in India ?
A13.   The leading producers in India are Digboi in Assam, Bombay High in Mumbai and the deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers.

Q14.  Where natural gas is found and what are its uses ? Name the two types of natural gas?
A14.   Natural gas is found with petroleum deposits and is released when crude oil is brought to the surface.
It can be used as a domestic and industrial fuel. The two types of natural gas are:-
1) LPG- Liquified petroleum gas.used in cooking gas etc. 
2)CNG- Compressed natural gas used in running vehicles.

Q15.  Name the producers of Natural gas in the world and India ?
A15.   Russia, Norway, UK and the Netherlands are the major producers of natural gasin the world.
In India Jaisalmer, Krishna Godavari delta, Tripura and some areas off shore in Mumbai have natural gas resources.

Q16.  How hydro electricity is produced ?
A16. Rain water or river water stored in dams is made to fall from heights. The falling water flows through pipes inside the dam over turbine blades placed at the bottom of the dam. The moving blades then turn the generator to produce electricity. This is called hydro electricity.

Q17.  Name the leading producers of hydel power in the world and India ?
A17. The leading producers of hydel power in the world are Paraguay, Norway, Brazil, and China. Some important hydel power stations in India are BhakraNangal, Gandhi Sagar, Nagarjunsagar and Damodar valley projects.

Q18.  What are the uses of Wind mill ?
A18. Wind mills have been used for grinding grain and lifting water since times immemorial. In modern time wind mills, the high speed winds rotate the wind mill which is connected to a generator to produce electricity.

Q19.  What is Wind farm and where it is located ?
A19. Wind farms having clusters of wind mills are located in coastal regions and in mountain passes where strong and steady winds blow.
Wind farms are found in Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain are noted for their wind energy production.

Q20.  How is nuclear power obtained ?
A20. Nuclear power is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radio active elements like uranium and thorium. These fuels undergo nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and emit power.

Q21.  Name the producers of Nuclear power in the world and India ?
A21. The greatest producers  of nuclear power are USA and Europe. In India Rajasthan and Jharkhand have large deposits of Uranium. Thorium is found in large quantities in the Monozite sands of Kerala.

Q22.  Name the nuclear power stations in India ?
A22. The nuclear power stations in Indiaare located in Kalpakkam in Tamilnadu, Tarapur in Maharastra, RanapratapSagar near Kota in Rajasthan, Narora in Uttar Pradesh and Kaiga in Karnataka.

Q23.  What is Geo-thermal energy ?
A23.   Heat energy obtained from the earth is called geothermal energy.

Q24.  How Geo-thermal energy is produced ?
A24. The temperature in the interior of the earth rises steadily as we go deeper. Some times this heat energy may surface itself in the form of hot springs. This heat energy can be used to generate power.

Q25.  What are the different uses of Geo-thermal energy ?
A25. Geothermal energy in the form of hot springs has been used for cooking, heating and bathing for several years.

Q26.  Name the largest Geo-thermal power plants in the world and India ?
A26. USA has the world’s largest geothermal power plants followed by  New Zealand, Iceland, Philippines and Central America. In India, geothermal plants are located in Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and PugaValley in Ladakh.

Q27.  What is tidal energy and how it is harnessed ?
A27. Energy generated from tides is called tidal energy. Tidal energy  can be harnessed by building dams at narrow openings of the sea. During high tide the energy of the tides is used to turn the turbine installed in the dam to produce electricity.

Q28.  Where tidal mill farm are found ?
A28.   Russia, France and the Gulf of Kachchh in India have huge tidal mill farms.

Q29.  What is Bio-gas ?
A29.   Organic waste such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste can be converted into a gaseous fuel called biogas.

Q30.  What are different uses of solar energy ?
A30.   Solar energy is also used in solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers besides being used for community lighting and traffic signals.

Q31.  What are the uses of Bio-gas ?
A31.   Biogas is an excellent fuel for cooking and lighting and produces huge amount of organic manure each year.

Q32.  How energy can be conserved ?
A32    Energy can be conserved by the following way :-
1)   Using energy resources rationally and judiciously.
2)   Energy saved is energy generated.

Q33.  How minerals can be conserved ?
A33..  Minerals can be conserved by the following ways :-
1)      Reduce wastage in the process of mining.
2)      Recycling of metals.
3)      Export of minerals should be minimum.
4)      To save the minerals their substitute should be used. 3 R – Reuse, reduce and recycle

Q34.  Differentiate between :-     
1) Ferrous and non –ferrous minerals.
2) Metallic and non metallic minerals.

Ferrous minerals
Non ferrous minerals
The minerals having iron contents are called ferrous minerals.
The minerals that do not possess Iron contents are called non ferrous minerals.
India has abundant ferrous minerals.
India is deficient in non Ferrous minerals.
Example-iron ore, manganese ore, cobalt and nickel.
Example--copper ore, tin, zinc, gold, Silver, lead etc.

Metallic minerals
Non metallic minerals
Metallic minerals are those minerals which can be melted to obtain new products.
Non metallic minerals are those which do not yield new products on melting.
These are generally associated with Igneous rocks
These are generally associated with sedimentary rocks.
They are usually hard and have shines or luster of their own.
They are not so hard and have no shine or luster of their own.
They are ductile i.e turned into wires.
They are not ductile.
They are malleable i.e. turned into wires
They are not malleable.
When hit, they do not get broken.
When hit they may get broken into pieces.

Q35.  Explain the methods by which minerals are extracted ?
A35.   The  process  of  taking  out  minerals  from rocks  buried  under  the  earth’s surface is called mining.
There are various ways of extracting minerals, it as follows:-
1)       Minerals  that  lie  at  shallow  depths  are  taken  out  by  removing  the surface layer; this is known as open-cast mining.
2)       Deep bores, called shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great depths. This is called shaft mining.
3)       Petroleum and natural gas occur far below the earth’s surface. Deep wells are bored to take them out, this is called drilling
4)       Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dugout, by the process known as quarrying.

Q36.  Explain the distribution of minerals?
A36.   Minerals occur in different types of rocks. Some are found in igneous rocks, some in metamorphic rocks while others occur in sedimentary rocks.

Generally, metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rock formations that form large plateaus. Iron-ore in north Sweden, copper and nickel deposits in Ontario ,Canada, iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South Africa are examples of minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.

Sedimentary rock formations of plains and young fold mountains contain non- metallic minerals like limestone

Q37.  Complete the following table showing the distribution of minerals in the World:_
Iron ore and lead
China and India
Iron ore and copper.
Ukraine, Eastern Europe.
North America
Coal and copper
Appalachians, Western Cordilleras
South America
Iron ore and tin
Brazil, Bolvia
Diamonds, Oil
Africa, Nigeria
Bauxite, Gold
Australia, Kalgoorlie
Iron and Gold
Transantartic mountain, Prince Charles mountains.

Q38.  Complete the following table showing distribution of minerals in India.

Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh
Jharkhand, Orissa
Jharkhand, Bihar
Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh
Maharastra, Madhya Pradesh
Bihar, Jharkhand
Kolar in Karnataka
Seas, Lakes and rocks

Q39.  List the uses of minerals?
A39.   1) Iron ore is used for manufacturing of machines, agriculture implements and items of general use.
2)    Minerals which are used for gems are usually hard. These are then set in various styles for jewellery.
3)    Copper is another metal used in everything from coins to pipes.
4)    Silicon, used in the computer industry is obtained from quartz.
5)    Aluminum  obtained  from  its  ore  bauxite  is  used  in  automobiles  and airplanes, bottling industry, buildings and even in kitchen cookware.
6)    Mica is used in electrical and electronic industries.
7)    Manganese ore is used for making iron, steel and preparing alloys.

Q40.  Differentiate between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy ?

Conventional sources of Energy
Non-conventional sources of Energy
The sources of energy which have been in use for a long time example coal, petroleum, natural gas and water power.
The resources which are recently developed and used example solar, wind, tidal, bio-gas and geothermal.
They   are   exhaustible   except water.
They are in-exhaustible.
They cause pollution when used, as they emit smoke and ash.
They are generally pollution free.
Their     generation     and     use involves huge expenditure.
Very less amount of money is required for their use in generating them.
They are very expensive to be maintained, stored and transmitted as they are carried over long distance through transmission grid and lines.
Less expensive due to local use and easy to maintain.

Q41.  List the advantages and disadvantages of the following non-conventional sources of energy :-
1)  Wind energy.

2)  Solar energy.
3)      Tidal energy.
4)      Nuclear energy.
5)      Bio gas.
6)      Geo thermal energy.
Wind Energy
§   Non-polluting.
§   Low cost production of electricity once setup.
§   Safe and clean.
§   Noise pollution.
§   Wind mills costly to setup.
§   Distrurb      radio      and      T.V. reception.
§   Harmful to birds.
Solar Energy
§   Inexhaustible.
§   Non polluting.
§   Expensive
§   Diffused source so gets wasted.
Tidal Energy
§   Non polluting.
§   Inexhaustible.
§   Destroys wild life habitat.
§   Difficult to harness
Nuclear energy
§   Emits large amount of energy
§   Generate radio active waste and expense.
§   Low cost
§   Easy to operate.
§   Makes use of bio waste
§   Causes green house effect
Geo Thermal energy
§   Clean  eco-friendly  and  always available.
§   Located far away from cities and so costly to transport the electricity.

Q42. Differentiate between Natural gas and Biogas. A42
Natural Gas
It is obtained in natural form.
It is obtained from shrubs, farm wastes, animal and  human wastes.
It is available in large quantities.
It is available in limited quantities.
It is used as a source or power.
It is used mostly in rural areas.
It is also used as raw material in petro-chemical industries.
It is not used as raw material.
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