CBSE NCERT Class VIII (8th) | Social Studies | History
Chapter : THE MAKING OF THE NATIONAL MOVEMENT- 1870s – 1947
CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer
Q1. Define nationalism?
Ans. The feeling of oneness and unity among the people of a nation or patriotic feeling, principles and policy of national independence is termed as nationalism.
Q2. What were the factors that led to the rise of national consciousness among the people of India?
Ans. The factors that led to the rise of national consciousness among the people of India were:
· Political associations came into being in the 1870s and 1880s:- Most of these were led by English –educated professionals such as lawyers. The more important ones were the Poona Servajanik Sabha, the Indian Association, the Madras Mahajan Sabha, the Bombay Presidency Association and the Indian National Congress.
· The dissatisfaction with British rule intensified in the 1870s and 1880s. They posted various laws which upset the people of India.
1. The Arms Act was passed in 1878, disallowing Indian from possessing arms.
2. In the same year the Vernacular Press Act was also enacted in an effort to silence those who were critical of the government. The Act allowed government to confiscate the assets of newspapers published anything that was found “objectionable”.
3. In 1883, there was a furore over the attempt by the government to introduce the Ilbert Bill. The bill provided for the trial of British or European persons by Indians, and sought equality between British and Indian judges in the country. But when white opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill, Indians were enraged.
· The event highlighted the racial attitudes of the British in India.
Q3. When was Indian National Congress formed?
Ans. The Indian National Congress was formed in December, 1885.
Q4. Mention the early leaders of Indian National Congress?
Ans. The early leadership:- Dadabhai Naroji, Pherozshah Mehta, Badruddhin Tyabji, W.C. Bonnerji, Surendranath Banerji, Romesh Chandra Dutt, S. Subramania Nyer.
Q5. Which British officer helped in the formation of Indian National Congress?
Ans. A retired British official, A.O. Hume helped in the formation of Indian National Congress.
Q6. Why were the early years of the Indian National Congress referred to as the moderate phase?
· The Congress in the first twenty years was “moderate” in its objectives and methods.
· During this period it demanded a greater voice for Indians in the government and in administration.
· It wanted the Legislative Councils to be made more representative, given more power, and introduced in provinces where not existed.
· It demanded that Indian be placed in high positions in the government. For this purpose it called for civil service examinations to be held in India as well, not just in London.
· The demand for Indianisation of the administration was part of a movement against racism, since most important jobs at the time were monopolished by white officials and the British generally assumed that Indian could not be given positions of responsibility.
· Other demands included the separation of the judiciary from the executive, the repeal of the Arms Act and the freedom of speech and expression.
Q7. What were the economic issues that were raised by the Indian National Congress in its moderate phase?
Ans. The early Congress also raised a number of economic issues:-
· It declared that British rule had led to poverty and famines: increase in the land revenue had impoverished peasants and zamindars, and exports of grains to Europe had created food shortage.
· The Congress demanded reduction of revenue, cut in military expenditure, and more funds for irrigation.
Q8. Why was Bengal partitioned?
· In 1905 Viceroy Curzon partitioned Bengal. At that time Bengal was the biggest province of British India and included Bihar and parts of Orissa.
· The British argued for dividing Bengal for reasons of administrative convenience.
· “Administrative convenience” was closely tied to the interests of British officials and businessmen.
· Even so, instead of removing the non –Bengali areas from the province the government separated East Bengal and merged it with Assam.
· Perhaps the main British motives were to curtail the influence of Bengali politicians and to split the Bengali people.
· The wanted to divide Hindus from Muslims.
Q9. What was the result of the partition of Bengal?
Ans. The partition of Bengal infuriated people all over India:
· All sections of the Congress – the Moderates and the Radicals, as they may be called - opposed it.
· Large public meetings and demonstrations were organised and novel methods of mass protest developed.
· The struggle that unfolded came to be known as the Swadeshi movement, strongest in Bengal but with echoes elsewhere too – in deltaic Andhra for instance, it was known as the Vandemataram Movement.
Q10. What do you understand by the term – ‘Swadeshi Movement’? Ans. The word ‘Swadeshi’ comes from two words – ‘ swa’ and ‘desh’ which means ones own country.
The Swadeshi Movement sought to appose British rule and in courage the ideas of self – help, Swadeshi enterprise, national education, and use of Indian languages.
To fight for swaraj the radicals advocated mass mobilization and boycott of British institutions and goods.
Q11. Who were the revolutionaries?
Ans. The revolutionaries were a small group of people who suggested that the use of violence to make a radical change within the society would be necessary to overthrow British rule.
Q12. When was the Muslim league formed and what were its demands? Ans. A groups of Muslim landlords and Nawabs formed the All India Muslim league at Dacca in 1906.
The league supported the partition of Bengal.
* It desired separate electorates for Muslims, a demand conceded by the government in 1906.
Some seats in the councils were now reserved for Muslims who would be elected by Muslims voters.
Q13. How did the Ist World War affect the economical condition of India?
Ans. The first World war altered the economic and political situation in India.
· It led to a huge rise in the defense expenditure of the Government of India.
· The government in turn increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits.
· Increased military expenditures and the demands for war supplies led to a sharp rise in prices which created great difficulties for the common people.
· On the other hand, business groups reaped fabulous profits from the war.
· The war created a demand for industrial goods (jute bags, cloth, and rails) and caused a decline of imports from other countries into India.
So, Indian industries expanded during the war, and Indian business groups began to demand greater opportunities for development.
Q14. What was Rowlatt Act?
Ans. Rowlatt Act was introduced by the British in 1919.
· According to this act, any Indian could be arrested without trial in the court of law.
· The act curbed fundamental rights such as the freedom of expression and strengthened police powers.
Q15. Why did the nationalist leader oppose Rowlett Act?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi, Mohanmad Ali Jinnah and others felt that the government had no right to restrict people’s basic freedoms.They criticized the Act as “devilish” and tyrannical.
Q16. What were the effects of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre?
Ans. On learning about the massacre, Rabindranah Tagore expressed the pain and anger of the country by renouncing his knighthood.
· During the Rowlatt Satyagraha the participants tried to ensure that Hindus and Muslims were united in the fight against British rule.
Q17. When was Non –Cooperation & Khilafat Movement launched?
Ans. In 1920, NCM and Khilafat Movement were launched.
Q18. What were the aims of NCM and Khilafat Movement?
Ans. The aims of NCM and Khilafat movement were:-
· They demanded for Swaraj.
· They wanted to reduce the ‘wrongs’ against Punjab and Turkey.
Q19. What were the methods adopted in the Non – cooperation Movement?
Ans. The Non –cooperation Movement gained momentum through 1921 -22.
· Thousands of students left government –controlled schools and colleges.
· Many lawyers such as Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das, C. Rajagopalachari and Asaf Ali gave up their practices.
· British titles were surrendered and legislatures boycotted.
· People lit public bonfires of foreign cloth.
· The imports of foreign cloth fell drastically between 1920 and 1922.
· Large parts of the country were on the brink of a formidable revolt.
Q20. When and why was the Non –cooperation Movement withdrawn?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi was against violent movements.
He abruptly called off the Non –Cooperation Movement when in February 1922 a crowd of peasants set fire to a police station in Chauri Chaura.
Q21. Mention the two demands of the Indian National Congress that it adopted in 1929?
Ans. The two demands of the Congress were:-
· The Congress resolving to fight for Purna Swaraj (complete independence) in 1929 under the president ship of Jawaharlal Nehru.
· Consequently “Independence Day” was observed on 26 January 1930 all over the country.
Q22. Why did Mahatma Gandhi organize a ‘dandi march’?
Ans. Purna Swaraj would never come on its own. It had to be fought for. In 1930, Gandhi declared that he would lead a march to break the salt law.
According to this law, the state had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt. Gandhi along with other nationalists reasoned that it was sinful to tax salt since it is such an essential item of our food.
The salt March related the general desire of freedom to a specific grievance shared by everybody, and thus did not divide the rich and the poor.
Q23. How did the British expand its army during the War period?
Ans. People in village were pressurized to supply soldiers for an alien cause.
· A large number of soldiers were sent overseas.
· Many returned after the war with an understanding of the ways in which imperialist powers were exploiting the people in Asia and Africa with a desire to oppose colonial rule in India.
Q24. Who was Mahatma Gandhi?
Ans. Gandhiji, aged 46, arrived in India in 1915 from South Africa. Having led Indian in the country in non – violent marches against racist restrictions, he was already a respected leader, known internationally. His South Africa campaigns had brought him in contact with various types of Indians: Hindus, Muslims, Parsis and Christians, Gujaratis, Tamil and North – Indians and upper –class merchants, lawyers and workers.
Mahatma Gandhi spent his first year in India traveling throughout the country, understanding the people, their needs and the overall situation.
Q25. Discuss the people’s response about the Non –Cooperation Movement in different parts of the country.
· In Gujarat Patidar peasants organised non- violent campaigns against the high land revenue demand of the British.
· In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu, liquor shops were picketed. In the Gunur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribals and poor peasants staged a number of “forest Satyagrahas”, sometimes sending their cattle into forests without paying grazing fee.
They were protesting because the colonial state had restricted their use of forest resources in various ways. They believed that Gandhiji would get their taxes reduced and have the forest regulation abolished. In many forest villages, peasants proclaimed swaraj and believed that “Gandhi Raj” was about to be established.
· In Sind (now in Pakistan), Muslim traders and peasant were very enthusiastic about the Khilafat call.
· In Bengal too, the Khilafat – Non- cooperation alliance gave enormous communal unity and strength to the national movement.
· In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the sikhs sought to remove corrupt mahants –supported by the British – from their gurudwaras.
· In Assam, tea garden labourers shouting “Gandhi Maharaj Ki Jai”, demanded a big increase in their wages. They left the British owned plantations amidst declarations that they were following Gandhiji’s wish.
Q26. Mention the people who participated in the Dandi March and what was the British response towards this movement?
Ans. The people who participated in the Dandi March were:-
· Peasants, tribals and women participated in large number.
· The British response towards this movement was – the government tried to crush the movement through brutal action against peaceful satyagrahis. Thousands were sent to jail.
Q27. What was the most important feature of the government of India act of 1935 introduced by British?
· Government of India Act of 1935 prescribed provincial autonomy and the government announced elections to the provincial legislatures in 1937.
· Congress formed governments in 7 out of 11 provinces.
Q28. What was the Congress demand after having won the elections?
· In September 1939, after two years of Congress rule in the provinces, the Second World War broke out.
· Critical of Hitler, Congress leaders were ready to support the British war effort.
· But in return they wanted that India be granted independence after the war.
· The British refused to concede demand.
· The congress ministries resigned in protest.
Q29. How did Gandhi organize Quit India Movement?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi decided to initiate a new phase of movement against the British in the middle of the Second World War.
· The British must quit India immediately he told them. To the people he said “do or die” in your effort to fight the British – but you must fight non –violently.
· Gandhi and other leaders were jailed as the movement spread.
· It specially attracted peasants and the youth who gave up their studies to join it.
· Communications and symbols of state authority were attacked all over the country.
· In many areas people set up their own governments.
Q30. How did the British try to control the Quit India Movement?
· The first response of the British was severe repression.
· By the end of 1943 over 90,000 people were arrested and around 1000 killed in police firing.
· In many areas orders were given to machine –gun crowds from airplanes. The rebellion, however, ultimately brought the Raj to its knees.
Q31. What were the demands of the Muslim league in 1946?
Ans In 1940 the Muslim league had moved a resolution demanding “Independent states” for Muslims in the north –western and eastern areas of the country.
· The resolution did not mention partition or Pakistan.
· From the late 1930s the league began viewing the Muslims as a separate “nation” from the Hindus.
· In developing this nation it may have been influenced by the history of tension between some Hindu and Muslim groups in the 1920s and 1930s.
· More importantly, the provincial elections of 1937 seemed to have convinced the league that Muslims were a minority and they would always have to play second fiddle in any democratic structure.
· It feared that muslims may even go unrepresented.
· The Congress’s rejection of the league’s desire to form a joint congress – league government in the United Provinces in 1937 also annoyed the league.
Q32. Why is the Indian National Congress (1919 – 1947) referred to as Gandhian Era?
Ans. From 1919 onwards Gandhi played a Major role in Indian National Movement as launched 3 great mass movements such as Non – cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, Quit India Movement. Ultimately it was Gandhi who led the people of India towards independence in the year 1947.
Q33. Write a short note on Jallianwala Bagh?
Ans. The Jallianwala Bagh atrocities inflicted by General Dyer in Ameritsar on Baisakhi Day (13 April), were a part of Rowlett Act repression. On learning about the massacre, Rabindranath Tagore expressed the pain and anger of the country be renouncing his knight hood. During the Rowlatt Satyagraha the participants tried to ensure that Hindus and Muslims were united in the fight against the British rule.