NCERT / CBSE NOTES | Class 8th (VIII) : Chapter Summary
Why do we need a Parliament
India is a parliamentary democracy. The parliament is the most important symbol of democracy. An important constitutional right is the right to vote. This is based on the principles of democracy and universal adult franchise.
India is divided into 552 parliamentary constituencies. Citizens must stand for election from each constituency but only one can be elected. The citizens elected to parliament are called Members of Parliament or MPs. The MPs you elect must enjoy your approval on all the work that they do! A person must be a nationalized citizen of India and over 18 years of age.
There are two governments—one at the centre, which we refer to as the Sansad, and one at the state-level called the Vidhan Sabha. The sansad consists of the President, the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.
The Lok Sabha is the house of the people to which you elect members of parliament. The MPs perform three main functions: select the national government, control, guide and inform the government, and make laws.
If no one party is able to get the 272 seats required to form a government, they must invite other like-minded parties to join them. This is called a coalition government. The Prime Minister is the leader of the ruling party or coalition government.
The Opposition plays a critical role in the healthy functioning of a democracy. They provide feedback to the executive and control, guide and inform the government. It is only through the active participation of the executive and The Opposition that the laws can meet public approval and ensure that everyone is represented!
CBSE NCERT Class VIII (8th) | Social Studies | Civics
Chapter : Why do we need Paliament
CBSE NCERT Solved Question Answer
Q1. Define the following:
1. UAF:- Universal Adult Franchise. In this principle, all adult citizens of the country have the right to vote.
2. Coalition Government:- It refers to the alliance formed by political parties after elections when no party has been able to get adequate seats to form a clear majority.
3. Executive:- It is a smaller group of people who are responsible for implementing laws and running the govt . They include CM, PM, Council of Minister.
4. Constituency:- A state is divided into several parts. From each area a MD is elected to control that area.
5. Opposition:- The party which loses the election is called the opposition.
Q2. What role does the parliament play in the functioning of the government?
a) The Parliament which is made up of all representatives controls and guides the government.
b) The question hour is an important mechanism through which MPS can elicit information absent the working of the govt.
c) The Parliament also have a significant role in law –making.
d) The Rajya Sabha functions primarily as the representative if the states of India in the Parliament.
e) The Rajya Sabha can also initiate legislation and a bill is required to pass through the Rajya Sabha in order to become a law. It, therefore, has an important role of reviewing and altering the laws initiated by the Lok Sabha.
Q3. How are the members of the Rajya Sabha elected?
Ans. The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of the Legislative assemblies of various states, There are 233 elected members plus 12 members nominated by the President.
Q4. Why do you think reservation of Dalits and woman is important ion India?
1) It has been observed that representative democracy cannot produce a perfect reflection of society.
2) There is a realization that when interests and experiences separate, then it is important to ensure that communities that have been historically marginalized are given adequate representation.
3) Similarly, it has more recently been suggested that there should be reservation of seats for woman.
With this in mind, some seats are reserved in the Parliament for SCs and STs. This has been done so that the MPs elected from these constituencies will be familiar with and can represent Dalit and Adivasi interests in Parliament.
Q5. What role does the opposition party play in the healthy functioning of a democracy?
i) The Opposition party asks questions absent the working and managing the country in the Parliament by asking questions the government is alerted to its shortcomings, and also know the opinion of the people through their representatives in the Parliament.
ii) They highlight drawbacks in various policies and programmes of the government and mobilize popular support for their own policies. Thus, the opposition parties play a critical role in the healthy functioning of a democracy.
Q6. Give at least 2 arguments against representative democracy.
1. Representative Democracy does not produce a perfect reflection of society as the interest and experiences separate the communities who have been given adequate representation.
2. Representative democracy does not allow reservation in Parliament as after elapse of sixty yrs of independence one –third reservation of women is still pending and only nine percent are members if Parliament even if half of the population is women.
Q7. Explain the basic idea behind the representative democracy?
Ans. The basic idea in the kind of the democracy is that the individual or the citizen is the most important person and the government as well as other public institutions need have to trust these citizens.
Q8. Differentiate between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
Number of Members
* Lok Sabha can be easily dissolved.
233 are elected + 12 nominated by the President. Rajya Sabha is a permanent house.
How are the members elected
By general elections held in every 5 yrs.
The members are elected from each constituency.
The members are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of various states.
* Elections are held after every 6 yrs.
It selected the executive who could work with the PM to implement decisions
Functions as the representation of states of India in Parliament. It also initiates legislation and a bill is required to pass through it in order to become a law.
The laws and policies are made by Lok Sabha.
It reviews and alerts the laws initiated by lok Sabha.
Q9. Who do you think the nationalist movement supported the idea that all the adults have a right to vote?
· Before freedom, under British rule, all adults were not allowed to vote and nor could people participate in decision making.
· The nationalists struggled and laid down the principle of Universal Adult Franchise.
· In this way the individual or the citizen is the most important person. It is the decision of the people that creates a democratic govt. and decides about its functioning.
Q10. Who is a Prime Minister and what role does he play in the functioning of the country?
· The Prime Minister is the leader of the ruling party in Lok Sabha
· From the MPs who belong to her party, the Prime Minister selects ministers to work with her to implement decision.
· These ministers then take charge of different areas of govt. functioning like health, education etc.
Q11. How can you say that composition of Indian parliament has changed recently?
· The Parliament now has more and more people from different backgrounds. For e.g.: There are more rural members as also members from any regional parties.
· Groups and peoples that were till now unrepresented are beginning to get elected to parliament.
· There has also been an increase in the political participation from the Dalit and the backward eastes and the minorities.
· Similarly, it has more recently been suggested that there should be reserved seats for women.
· This issue is still being debated. 60 yrs ago only 4% of MPs were women and today it is above 9%. This is a small share when your considerer the fact that half the population is women.
Ques12) Explain the procedure of elections.
People would elect their representatives to the parliament, then one group from among these elected representatives from the government.
The Parliament which is made up of all representatives together controls and guides the Govt. In this sense people, through their chosen representatives and form the Government.
The country is divided into numerous constituencies. Each of these constituencies elects one person to the parliament. The candidates who contest elections usually belong to different political parties.
Ques13 What is a parliament and how does the executive control the Govt.?
- Created after 1947, The Indian Parliament is an expressive of the faith that the people of Indian have in principles of democracy. These are participation by people in the decisions making process and government.
- The Parliament, while in session with a question hour. The question hour is an important mechanism through with the Parliament controls the executive.
- By asking questions the Govt. is alerted to its shortcomings, and also comes to know the opinion of the people through their representatives in the Parliament i.e. the MPs.
- Asking questions from the government it reflects in the healthy functioning of a democracy. They highlight drawbacks in various policies and programs of the Govt. .