The Indian schools of philosophy may be classified broadly into two Asthika (orthodox) and Nastika ( heterodox). The first group believed in the Vedas and the second school rejected the Vedas. The first one‘s are called the Asthika systems which have the schools of Mimansa, Vedanta, Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya and Vaisesika. The latter schools are Charvaka, Buddha and Jaina.
Eastern schools of philosophy
Eastern philosophies are concerned with all aspects of life. Indian philosophies both orthodox and heterodox are more concerned with the perennial problems of life. So philosophy is “Tattva Darshan” or vision of life.
Let us outline, now, briefly the salient features of the Indian philosophical tradition.
1. The Indian philosophical schools have developed more a synthetic outlook. There is no separate treatment of ontology (Theory of Reality), Epistemology (Theory of Knowledge), or Ethics and Aesthetics as distinct branches of philosophy. These questions are approached generally and relatively, some schools stressing more the metaphysical point and some the logical approach to knowledge.
2. Indian philosophical tradition is indifferent to History. Every attempt is made to go into contribution and content of each school by clear exposition and sequential arrangement of things.
3. The underlying spiritual and moral basis is uniform to all the schools generally, except perhaps the philosophy of charvaka or the materialistic philosophy.
4. Philosophy is a practical necessity for understanding how life can be used . the broad human ends (Purusharthas) are Dharma, Arhta, Kama and Moksha. These are far different from mere intellectual pursuits.
5. Indian philosophy starts with a pessimistic note but builds up a positive approach to realize one‘s values in life.
6. The doctrine of Karma or a doctrine of action finds a firm faith. The doctrine of births and deaths is common to Vedic Buddhist and Jaina tradition.
7. There is a reference to the universal stage outside the individual self. The content of “Para- Brahma” is the external universal transcendental edition of the spiritual development of the individual.
8. The terms ‘bondage‘ and liberation are used in the sense that the former means the cycle of births and deaths and latter means release from the process.
9. Self- control and concentration are needed to remove passions and develop techniques of yoga and contemplation
10. The highest aim of life is ‘ Moksha‘ or ‘Nirvane‘ which means liberation positively as the Eternal Bliss and negatively as destruction of all sufferings.
Read in Details Eastern Philosophies of Education
(a) Educational Implications of the following Conventional Schools of Indian Philosophy
(b) Educational Implications of the following Heterodox Schools of Indian Philosophy :