Islam is a religion for all mankind and is relevant for both spiritual and mundane life. Islam does not recognize the differences on the basis of caste, creed, wealth, language , race, region etc. Islam contains just economic system, a well-balanced social system, codes of civil, criminal, international law and a philosophical outlook on the mission of life. Islam essentially stands for deep religious life and at the same time defines a good living for the mankind.
BASIC TENETS OF ISLAMIC WORLD VIEW
• Man is the creation of God who can choose to conform to his ordinates
• Man has intelligence, will and speech. But man is also weak and forgetful. Through revelation‘s guidance he can seek to overcome his imperfections.
• Conformity with God‘s will determines a man‘s destiny in this life and the next.
• The right way to live is according to God‘s will, which he has revealed through the prophets.
• Islam is a restatement of what god has to say to man as a set of beliefs
• Law is prescribed in Islam for every sphere of life
• The Muslim world is one unit.
• Islam is not only to be apprised of, even carefully acquainted with, its pattern, institutions and history but also to apprehend what these mean to those who have the faith.
FEATURES OF ISLAM
• Islam is universal : The Islamic system is such that it makes all men as one community and does not make any distinction on the basis of language , race, colour , culture or history.
• Islam is comprehensive : It provides a complete code of conduct for living . It is not merely for individuals but nation as well.
• Islam is eternal : From the beginning of the universe , Islam has been the only true religion . Islam is not a novel religion that appeared in Arabia four centuries ago, preached by the Prophet Muhammad. It is the religion God made known on the day when man first appeared on the earth.
• Islam is dynamic : Islam is not a static RELIGION. It‘s principles are not confined to any one particular period of history or particular set of circumstances, Islamic principles cannot be outdated. They are capable of meeting the demands of the modern age.
• Islam is rational : Several verses quoted from Holy Quran and sayings from Prophet clearly ask human beings to observe, to think, to analyse and to judge. All these are symptoms of rationalism and reasoning.
• Islam is realistic : Islam is a religion which does not make discrimination between theory and practice. It does prohibit from such action which is difficult to do. Islam knows the characteristics and nature of human beings.
• Islam does not make any distinction on the basis of colour : Islam considers all human beings on the same footing and does not discriminate on the score of colour.
• Islam promotes harmony between the individual and the society, faith and science, the material and the spiritual
• Islam is misunderstood : It has been the misfortune of Islam that it has been misunderstood by various religions and their followers. The causes of misunderstanding are improper interpretations old Jihad, the alleged use of sword in spreading Islam, imposition of Jizya, polygamy, divorce etc. if non- Muslim try to understand how misgivings have arisen about these terms then Islam can be properly understand.
ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN RELATION TO DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF EDUCATION
Education system was essentially religious in character. It was patronised by the Muslim rulers. The sole aim of Muslim education became spread of Islam, perpetuation and preservation of Muslim culture. The Muslim rulers and beneficiaries established “Maktabs‘ and ‘Madarsas‘ where the study of Holy Quran became a prominent feature. The Islamic laws, opinions, customs and doctrines were subjects of study and all students were required to master them.
The object of Muslim education was attainment of worldly prosperity and social distinction. The main aim of education is ‘to understand the relation of man with God as revealed in the Holy Quran‘.
Aims and Objectives
• To provide the teachings of Holy Quran as first step of education
• To provide experiences which are based on fundamentals of Islam.
• To provide experiences in the form of knowledge and skills with clear understanding that these experiences are likely to be changed in the light of changes in society.
• To develop understanding that knowledge without the basis in faith and religion is incomplete education
• To develop commitment towards the basic values which have been prescribed in religion and scripture.
• To develop sense of accountability towards Almighty creator so that man passes his life like a faithful servant
• To encourage international brotherhood irrespective of differences in generations, occupations and social class.
• To foster great consciousness of the Divine presence in the universe
• To bring man nearer to an understanding of God and of the relation in which man stands to his Creator
• To develop piety and faith amongst the followers
• To produce man who has faith as well as knowledge in spiritual development
• To develop such qualities of a good man which are universally accepted by the societies which have faith in religion .
Nature of Elementary & Higher Education
• Maktaba & Primary education :
Maktaba is a Arabic word which means a place where writing is taught. Thus Maktaba is a place where pupils learn reading & writing. Here pupils are made to learn Ayats & verses of Quran Like the vedic ‘ Upanayana‘ and Buddhists ‘pabajja‘ in the Islamic education a ceremony called “Bismillah” was performed when the child attained the age of 4 years, 4 months & 4 days .
The child was taught the letters of alphabets of Urdu, persian and Arabic languages. Recitation sutras or chapters of Quran. Stories of muslim fakirs and the poems of persian poets were also taught. For character building, the books Gulistan and Bostan written by sheikhsaddi were taught. Grammar and literature, history of laws of Islam, logic, philosophy, Law, Astrology, History, Geography, Agriculture, Unani system of medicine,
Recitation ,learning kalama & collective repitition.
Writing, reading and oral methods and also Monitor methods in Maktabs and madarsas.
Madarsas and Higher Education:
The word “Madarsa” is derived from Arabic word “dars” which means a lecture. Thus Madarsasas mean a place where lectures are delivered. Madarsa was an educational institution for imparting Islamic education and higher learning in which students sought admission after completing Maktab education.
Lecture method was supplemented by discussions.
Duration of education in Madarsas was 10 to 20 years.
• Curriculum was divided into two categories: (Religious education & Secular education).
• Religious education: The contents of religious curriculum included intensive and critical analysis of the Quran, intensive study of Islamic Law, suffism and the heritage of Mohammad Sahib.
• Secular education: The contents of secular education included the teaching of languages and literatures of Arabic and persian, logic, History, Geography, Astronomy, Astrology, Arithmetic, Agriculture, Medicine, Economics, Ethics, Philosophy,
• Teaching Methods : Lecture method, self study, practical method in subjects like music architecture.
Education was not imparted on psychological line. Students were forced to maintain strict discipline by giving them severe corporal punishments. Truants and deliquents were severely caned on palms. Good and intelligent students were rewarded.
Teacher- Pupil Relationship
The relationship between teachers and studens in Muslim period was as cordial as it was during Vedantic and Buddhist period. Students and teachers showed genuine kind of feeling of love and respect. There was constant and intimate relationship between teacher & student.
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION
• Practical and useful Education : Education was for preparation for the practical life . Education achieved more objectivity
• Free- Education: education in Maktabs and Madarsas was free and compulsory upto elementary level for all muslim children. Boarding and lodging in Madarsas was also free.
• Individual Contact: Education was considered a personal process, the teacher had to live with his pupils.
• Monitorial System : Monitorial system was also more commonly used.
• Status of Teacher : Teacher had high status, they commanded respect in society. Were man of high moral character.
• Patronage of Education : Enjoyed state patronage. Almost all muslim rulers set up maktabs & Madarsa and showed their generosity, favour and love for education. Even learned persons, literary people, poets etc got patronage and encouragement from states and royal families.
• Promotion of cultural Unity : No restriction of caste and religion to get admission in Maktabs & Madarsas
• Encouragement to persian language & Science: Persian Language was the media of education, so special emphasis was given on the teaching of Arabic and Persian language, and the study of science subject was emphasized.
• Development of Literature and History : Great attention was given to the growth of History and art of writing History, infact tradition of writing history had its root in this period. Various forms of Literature also underwent significant growth.
TO SUM UP :
The stream of Islamic education continued to flow in India for a period of almost 500 years. Its system passed through the hands and reign of many rulers. This process inevitably left an indelible mark on Indian life.
In this period a synthesis between wordly or materialistic and religious education began, and consequently a tendency toward professionalisation or vocationalisation emerged. During this period, great attention was paid to the growth of history and the art of writing history.