Marxism is a particular political philosophy, with economical and sociological worldview based upon a materialist interpretation of history. An analysis of capitalism, a theory of social change, and an atheist view of human liberation is the result of the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. 

The three primary aspects aspects of Marxism are:


    Dialectical and materialist concept of history – Humankind‘s history is fundamentally that of the struggle between social classes. The productive capacity of society is the foundation of society, and as this capacity increases over time the social relations of production, class relations, evolve through this struggle of the classes and pass through definite stages (Primitive communism, slavery, feudalism,  capitalism). The legal, political,, Ideological and other aspects (e.g. art) of society are derived from these production relations as is the consciousness of the individuals of which the society is composed.

  The critique of capitalism – Marx argues that in capitalist society, an economic minority dominates and exploits the working class majority. Marx attempted to argue that capitalism was exploitative, specifically the way in which unpaid labor is extracted from the working class, extending and critiquing the work of earlier political economists on value. This forms the fundamental contradiction of capitalist society. Without the elimination of the fetter of the private ownership of the means of production, human society is unable to achieve further development.

   Advocacy of proletarian revolution – In order to overcome the fetters of private property the working class must seize political power internationally through a social revolution and expropriate the capitalist classes around the world and place the productive capacities of society into collective ownership. Upon this,, material foundation classes would be abolished and the material basis for all forms of inequality between humankind would dissolve.
Marxism, MARXIST THOUGHT, MARXIST VALUES, Education Implication of Marxism, Philosophy of Education, B.ED, M.ED, NET Notes ( Study Material), PDF Notes Free Download.
Contemporarily, innovative analytical methods of Karl Marx – materialist dialectics, the labour theory of value, etc – are applied in archaeology,  anthropology,  media  studies,  political  science,  theater, history, sociological theory, cultural studies, education, economics, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, critical psychology and philosophy.

A system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a single, often authoritarian party holds power, claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people.

The Marxist-Leninist version of Communist doctrine that advocates the overthrow of capitalism by the revolution of the working class.

The year 1848 was also marked by the appearance of The Communist Manifesto of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, the primary exposition f the socioeconomic doctrine that came to be known as Marxism. It postulated the certainty of a communist society, which would result when economic forces (the determinants of history) caused the class war; in this struggle the exploited industrial workers would overthrow the capitalists and establish the new classless order of social ownership. Marxian theories and programs soon came to dominate left-wing thought. Although the German group (founded in 1847) for which The Communist Manifesto was written was called the Communist League, the Marxist movement went forward under the name of socialism.

An economic and social system envisioned by the nineteenth- century German scholar Karl Marx. In theory, under communism, all means of production are owned in common, ‗rather than by individuals‘. In practice, a single authoritarian party controls both the political and economic systems. In the twentieth century, communism was associated with the economic and political systems of China and the Soviet Union and of the satellites of the Soviet Union.

Communism is a term that can refer to one of several things: a social and economic system, an ideology which supports that system, or a political movement that wishes to implement that system.

As a social and economic system, communism would be a type of egalitarian (Affirming, promoting, or characterized by belief in equal political, economic, social, and civil rights for all people.)

Society with no state, no privately owned means of production, and no social classes. All property is owned cooperatively and collectively, by the community as a whole, and all people have equal social and economic status and rights. Human need or advancement is not left unsatisfied because of poverty, and is rather solved through distribution of resources as needed. This is thus often the system proposed to solve the problem of the capitalist poverty cycle.

Perhaps the best known maxim of a communist society is ―From each according to his ability, to each according to his need.‖ This economic model is also referred to as a gift economy. (This definition is rather too wide for many tastes, since it encompasses, as Karl Popper has pointed out, the early Christian church, as it is described in the Acts of the Apostles.)

 MARXIST THOUGHT


The best-known form of communism is Marxism and its various derivatives. Among other subjects, Marxism proposes the materialist conception of history; there are stages of economic development: slavery, feudalism, capitalism, and communism. These stages are advanced through a dialectical process, progressing society as history progresses. This progress is driven by class struggle. Communism is the final form of class society as it results in one class, or conversely there are no classes as those divisions cannot exist if any one exists.

Although many small communist societies have existed throughout human history, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were the first to devise a rigorous theoretical basis for communism. The political theory they created, namely Marxism, became the chief advocate of communism in the modern world.

Marxism seeks to explain historical phenomena in terms of class struggle. According to Marxists, human society consists of a number of social classes, which are differentiated by their relationship to the means of production. For example, capitalist society consists of the bourgeoisie (the capitalists; those who own the means of production) and the proletariat (the workers; those who must work for wages in order to make a living, because they do not possess any means of production of their own). One social class is the ruling class, and it uses its wealth and power to exploit the other class(es). Eventually, one of the exploited classes rises up to overthrow the ruling class and the existing system, establishing itself as the new ruling class of a new system (for example, capitalism was established when the bourgeoisie overthrew feudalism and the feudal ruling class-the aristocracy). The formation of these classes are explained by Economic Determinism, in which human nature forms these classes in their will to protect the current modes of production.

According to the theory, class struggle is the engine of a cycle in which socio-economic systems are created, destroyed and replaced. Marsism identifies several systems that have been created and destroyed by it since the beginning of human history. However, social classes – and therefore class struggle- have not always existed. They were created at the dawn of human civilization, when nomadic tribes first settled down and started practicing agriculture. Before that, human beings lived in a kind of classless society that can be described as primitive communism. Primitive communism ended when agriculture created the conditions for private ownership of the means of production (Which, at that time, simply meant private ownership of 5 cultivated lands). This differentiated people into land owners and those who needed to work other people‘s land for a living and this in turn resulted in the slavery-based system of the ancient world. That system eventually gave way to feudalism, which eventually gave way to capitalism.

According to Marxism, the class struggle within capitalism will eventually lead to the proletariat overthrowing the bourgeoisie and establishing socialism. Socialism, in turn, will result in the gradual fading of social classes (as the means of production are made public property), which will lead to the final stage of human society-communisms.

This forms the basis for the Marxist foundation for communism. Communism cannot change into another system because class struggle – the mechanism that drives such changes-no longer exists.

MARXIST VALUES


Moral Character – A person must be given moral training to subordinate all his interests, desires and actions to the service of the Communist State and the people, and this is possible only by inculcating specific values among the school children.

Respect for Public Property – Teachers should uphold the principle by using stories from history, but above all the example. The teacher must strictly enforce that the child must not harm others by breaking any rules regarding respect for public property.

Respect for Authority – in another moral moral principle which children must learn early in life. This respect is not to be based upon fear of punishment, but rather the child should learn to respect the authority of the teacher and others because these people have been helpful, understanding, fair and firm.

Patriotism – the development of a good moral character is as essential part of the Marxist education. There virtues must be expressed in an unwavering devotion to one‘s country. This Devotion beings with love of parents, relatives, friends, the local community and then the government and the thinkers and leaders of the state- Marx, Lenin, Station and others.

Love and Respect for Parents, Elders and all workers- Patriotism is based upon the immediate attachment to parents, friends, relatives and local environment. But the love of persons is a value worth cultivating for its own sake. Stalin insisted that ―People are the most valuable and most‖ "decisive capital". Education should play an important part in fostering love and respect for people. Children should be taught these noble sentiments through literature, good examples and the practice of manners expressed in word and deed. This is the true essence of the basic values. Children should be taught politeness, manners and obedience to elders and teachers. Rudeness and disobedience should be checked and corrected.

Proper training should be given, and in a positive manner, by assigning responsibilities to the young.
Another aspect of developing respect for persons, whether old or young, should be respect for truth and hatred of lying. From early children should learn to tell the truth and never cheat or lie, not only because these acts harm others, but because they destroy a person‘s integrity.

The common Good – the common good is ranked very high in Marxist philosophy. There is public ownership of all land, resources and instruments of production, horsing, recreation and education. This is achieved through comradeship, friendship, sharing co- operation, discharging social obligations, Respect for school property, group work and play; co- educational projects are all aspects of working for the common good.

Discipline – In the Marxist system, discipline in a most important virtue. The school must insist on discipline not only because it is necessary for life. From early years, children must be educated in such a manner that a state of discipline will remain as their permanent possession. It must be self – discipline.

The value of Labour – In Marxism, the true value of any object is be measured by the amount of human labour which has been performed in its production. Labour is not to be regarded as something distasteful of unpleasant. On the other hand, labour is to be considered an expression of the highest aspiration of a human being. Labour is a matter of ―honor, glory, valour and heroism‖. It gives man the  opportunity to serve his fellow men, thus promoting the common good.

OBJECTIVES AND AIMS


Under Marxism, the ultimate purpose of education is to strengthen the State and building up of a classless society. This central aim provides the rationale for the curricula and the teaching methods in the schools – while teaching, the teacher must have the following goals in mid:
1.The development of knowledge in the academic area such as mathematics, science, foreign languages and history, knowledge is not to e imparted of acquired for its own shake, it has a social purpose- namely the service o f the state.
2. Encouraging competence in vocational fields, specially in scientific technology and in agriculture and technical trades.
3. Development of good health habits.
4.Respect for Public Property.
5. Development of habits of Industriousness and persistence in learning.
6. Development of initiative and courage.

 CURRICULUM


The doctrines of Marxism are studied at all levels of school and university, as also the history of the party and the contributions of the leaders of the State. Political economy and political education are very important subjects. Mathematics and the Science as well as scientific and technological education are introduced from the very earliest years at School. Geography, Biology, Geology, Astronomy, Languages and Literature are taught in the first ten years of school. Youth education and organizations provide life education and life adjustment training and experience. Humanities, arts, aesthetics are also taught- the performing arts are entirely cooperative and not competitive – as sports, drama, music.

Education Agencies – the state is the sole agency of education. There are State-sponsored nursery schools in all cities and villages where very young children of nursery age can be admitted. Mothers are encouraged to participate in productive work and labour. Mothers also  actively participate in political life. These nursery schools assume the responsibility of the family in providing food, shelter, exercise and the general physical environment of home for the child. The central authority for all education in the State, which has absolute power and control of all schools. There is no decentralization of school administration or educational planning and curricula. The methods of instruction, textbooks and evaluation systems are centrally controlled and administered by the suite.

There is free and compulsory education for all levels, and student can go to university depending on his ability, or go to technical or trade school.

Education

  • It should be set up, managed & financed by the state. Separation of church from education.
  • Promotion of science and technology because  of material bases.  
  • Sub- structures are developed due to advancement of the science & technology.
  • Manual work Mass education Monistic state
  • Comprehensive / common school
The Marxist approach to education is broadly constructivist, and emphasizes activity, collaboration and critique, rather than passive absorption of knowledge, emulation of elders and conformism; it is student-centred rather than teacher centred, but recognizes that education cannot transcend the problems and capabilities of the society in which it is location.

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