PREVIOUS : Paulo Freire - Views on Education (PART 1)
Some of the tools a banking education model might use include a pre-prescribed curriculum, syllabus or course book, which either takes no account or makes assumptions of learners' views or knowledge of the world.Freire called these pre-prescribed plans and course books as primers. Paulo Freire saw no use for traditional primers. How does a person benefit from repeation “Eve saw the grape”, this statement has nothing to do with reality. Freire stated that “There will be no significant learning if the pupil fails to establish a relationship with the object, if he doesn‘t act towards it.”
• As a result of this belief, Freire wrote cultural primers in the late 1950‘s with the object of building a revolutionary society. His basic objective with the primers was to present concrete reality to be transformed. Program content should be presented to allow the pupils to take control of it little by little rather than just receiving the content. Teaching materials should be written regionally or even locally. He believed that the universalization of teaching material to reading is an absurdity scientifically and an act of authority politically (Gadotti, 1994).
The Freirean cultural circle made use of slide projectors – imported from Poland at – which were used to display film slides that were the centerpiece of Freire‘s literacy training because of their ability to foster a collective learning environment and amplify reflective distancing (Sayers & Brown, 1993, pp. 32-33). For the slides, Freire enlisted the well-known artist Francisco Brenand to create’codified pictures‘ that were designed to help peasants semantically visualize the ‘culture making capacities composed of 10 situations that intended to reveal how peasant life is cultural (and not natural) and thus human (and not animal). Freire‘s film slides were displayed on the walls of peasants‘ homes, whereupon dialogues were conducted that analyzed the slides‘ various pictorial elements. The pictures themselves depicted a range of premodern and modern technologies, as well as other cultural artifacts.
Freire‘s film slides were displayed on the walls of peasants‘ homes, whereupon dialogues adopt technology pedagogically to demonstrate people‘s inherent productive and communicative abilities, as well as the possibility of their utilizing modern technologies critically and as part of a means to rehumanized ends.
A central theme of Paulo Freire is that of dialogue. Dialogue is a part of human nature, we need each other to discover and discovery is a social process and discussion is the cement. He thought that the moment of dialogue was the moment of transformation.
Freire saw the dialogue of the elite as vertical. He called it ”banking” pedagogy. The person who is learning only needs to listen while the educator”deposits” knowledge. This narrative form of education maintains the division between those who know and those who don‘t. Freire viewed dialogue as a horizontal relationship based on love respect and tolerance. It follows then that Banking education and problemitazation are opposite methods “Finally,” comments Freire, “true dialogue cannot exist unless the dialoguers engage in critical thinking…thinking which perceives reality as process, as transformation, rather than as a static activity” (Ibid, 92).
True dialogue is for Freire what civic education must be about. If civic education does not include it, then there is little hope that the future will be anything for the oppressed but a continuation of the present.
“Authentic education is not carried on by’A‘ for’B‘ or by’A‘ about’B,‘
but by’A‘ with’B‘…”
Essential to such education are the experiences of the students, whatever their ages or situations.
The act of knowing involves a dialectical movement that goes from action to reflection and from reflection upon action to a new action. (Freire 1972).
If learning to read and write is to constitute an act of knowing, the learners must assume from the beginning the role of creative subjects. It is not a matter of memorising and repeating given syllables, words and phrases but rather, reflecting critically on the process of reading and writing itself and on the profound significance of language (Freire 1985) That power is to be used to liberate themselves from oppression. This pedagogy to end oppression, as Freire writes, “must be forged with, not for, the oppressed” (1970, 48; emphases in original), irrespective of whether they are children or adults. Freire worked primarily with illiterate adult peasants in South America, but his work has applications as well to schools and school-aged children. It is to be a pedagogy for all, and Freire includes oppressors and the oppressed.
Freire wanted his students, whether adult peasants or a country's youth, to value their cultures as they simultaneously questioned some of those cultures' practices and ethos. This Freire referred to as “reading the word”—as in ending illiteracy—and ”reading the world”—the ability to analyze social and political situations that influenced and especially limited people's life chances. For Freire, to question was not enough; people must act as well.
Liberation, therefore, is a “praxis,” but it cannot consist of action alone, which Freire calls “activism.” It must be, instead, action combined with “serious reflection” (Ibid, 79, 65). This reflection or “reflective participation” takes place in dialogue with others who are in the same position of realization and action.
The oppressed thereby use their own experiences and language to explain and surmount their oppression. They do not rely upon others, even teachers, to explain their oppressed circumstances. “Through dialogue, the teacher-of-the-students and the students-of the-teacher cease to exist and a new term emerges: teacher-student with students-teachers” (Ibid, 80). The reciprocity of roles means that students teach teachers as teachers teach students. Dialogue encourages everyone to teach and everyone to create together.
LEADING THE NATIONAL LITERACY PROGRAM :
In 1962 the mayor of Recife appointed Freire as head of an adult literacy program for the city. In his first experiement, Freire taught 300 adults to read and write in 45 days. This program was so successful that during the following year the President of Brazil appointed him to lead the National Literacy Program. This program was on its way to becoming similarly successful, with expected enrollments to exceed two million students in 1964. Under Brazil's constitution, however, illiterates were not allowed to vote. The O Globe, an influential conservative newspaper, claimed that Freire's method for developing literacy was stirring up the people, causing them to want to change society, and formenting subversion. As a consequence of a military overthrow of the government in 1964, Freire was jailed for 70 days, then exiled briefly to Bolivia and then to Chile for five years.
Paulo and his group of Educators had a double task: to develop an efficient literacy method for adults, and to raise the social consciousness of the Brazilian workers. They found out that the workers were fatalists, resigned to their situation in society, and thinking that it was impossible to change this situation.
It was only in 1969 that Paulo Freire wrote about his methodology in his book Pedagogy of the Oppressed, when he was a political exile in Chile. In this and his other books, Freire developed the theory of his practice as Popular Educator. They are books about the philosophy of this work, about the concepts, the general directives, not about the practice, the lessons, the activities in the classroom. And this has to be so: for each practical experience with each group of learners is different from the others.
There are no ready-made formulas to apply the Paulo Freire methodology in the classroom and this is perhaps the biggest difficulty to many educators. They have to free themselves of the traditional concepts of the educational process where the educator is the sole origin of knowledge and the students are only the receptors of this knowledge, and they only way they have to learn this is also the practice.
They have to practice the Freire Methodology in order to learn to use it. Theory and Practice are inseparable: Theory is a moment of practice; from the practice is born the theory, and the theory goes back to the practice to be changed and reformulated.
ACTION + REFLECTION = PRAXIS
A CONCEPT OF EDUCATION – A CONCEPT OF THE PROCESS OF PRODUCATION OF KNOWLEDGE
The most important precept of this methodology is:
The learners are the Subject in the learning process, and not the object – as they have to be Subjects of their destiny, and not objects.
The educator and the learners are equal participants in the learning process.
This process is developed by a continuous dialogue between the educator and the learners.
PAULO FREIRE METHODOLOGY
a) TO SEE the situation lived by the participants
b) TO ANALYZE this situation, analyzing the root causes (socio- economic, political, cultural, etc.)
c) TO ACT to change this situation, following the precepts of Social Justice.
PAULO FREIRE METHODOLOGY INDEPTH
a) FIND THE PROBLEMS (GENERATIVE THEMES)
participants research – get to know participants and their life and work settings
get the background and facts about the issues that affected them understanding / READING the World in which we live together
b) PRODUCE THE CODES (CODIFICATION)
create a material representation ( a drawing, a video, a photo, a puppet show, an audiotape, etc. ) to capture the GENERATIVE THEMES. create a play or skit including many or all of the GENERATIVE THEMES
what are your ideas?
c) THREE STEPS INDUCTIVE QUESTIONING PROCESS
A. TO SEE THE SITUATION AS PARTICIPANTS EXPERIENCE IT
describe the situation shown in the CODE define the problems in the situation
make the link between the participants and the problems
B. TO ANALYZE THE SITUATION (The Problem Tree) Why did this happen?
How is this perpetuated and/or sustained?
What are the immediate effects and the root causes of these problems? (socioeconomic, political, cultural)
C. TO ACT TO CHANGE THE SITUATION
short term ACTion (next 3 days, 3 weeks, 3 months: affecting one of the Problem Tree‘s leaves)
long term ACTion (next 3 months, 3 years: affecting one of the Problem Trees‘ source roots)
The 3 Basic Steps of this Methodology are: to SEE, to ANALYZE, to ACT.
These steps are repeated over and over again, following the changes in the situation as experienced by the participants.
Paulo Freire is often described as a humanistic, militant educator who believed that solutions in education are always found in concrete context. Students should be asked what they want to learn. There must be a collaboration, union and cultural synthesis. The educator should not manipulate students but should also not leave them to their own fate. He should direct tasks and study not order students. He believed that the liberating educator invites students to think. This allows the student to make and remake their worlds and become more human. Freire believed that communication should be simple even if the information is complex. Simplifying, allows for deeper accessibility by the students.