Memory is the special ability of our mind to store when we learn something, to recollect &reproduce it after some time. Memory is a complex process involving learning, retention, recall & recognition.
The experiences, which we undergo, leave traces in our minds in the form of 'Schemas‘. The length of our retention depends on the strength & quality of the traces.
FACTORS AFFECTING MEMORY
Kind of material
One can learn or memorize meaningful material more easily than nonsense material. e.g. poetry is generally easier to learn than prose. Prose is easier than a list of disconnected words. Meaningful words are easier to learn than nonsense syllables. Students require less time to learn if the material is meaningful.
Age of the learner
“You can‘t teach old dog new tricks” Generally it is presumed that children can memorize easier than adult. A child can be easily motivated to learn while an adult may not. Interests in children are not specific while those of adult become more specific. Adults will therefore require more time to learn if they are not interested in a certain area. Since learning and memorization also depends upon maturation, an adult is likely to get an advantage over the child.
Girls show superiority over boys of the same age in their ability to memorize. But here too, the factors like desire to learn, interest, environment, family, motivation influence.
Learner’s attitude :
One who sees that learning of certain material is related to the attainment of his goals, has a more favorable attitude towards studying the material and memorizing it.
Knowledge of result.
If the learner has immediate feedback, he learns the material more rapidly and accurately which helps in better memorization.
Interest of the learner.
Due to interest, the learner learns with a proper attitude and remembers the learnt matter.
Length of the series.
Longer matter is difficult to learn & memorize. If the length of the material to be learnt is shorter, it is easier to memorize.