Adjustment is the process by which a living organism maintains a balance between its needs and the circumstances that influence the satisfaction of these needs.
An individual‘s adjustment is adequate, wholesome or healthy to the extent that he hasestablished harmonious relationship between himself and the conditions, situations and persons who comprise his physical and social environment.
Maladjustment refers to disharmony between the person and his environment. Contrary to adjustment, maladjustment represents a condition or a state in which one feels that one‘s needs are not fulfilled and he has been a failure in establishing harmony with his self and the environment.
Causes of maladjustments:
The causes of one‘s maladjustment to his self and the environment may be both of personal as well as environmental
Following are the causes of maladjustment:
1. Unhealthy home environment – Include separated family, divorced family, step parent, drunkard or drug addicted parents, single parenting, low moral and social standard of family.
2. Heredity causes – One may feel inferior because of inherited defective mental set up, physiological structure, colour of the skin (dark) which could lead to maladjustment.
3. Poverty – When poor children meet rich children in the school, they sometimes develop jealousy, worry and inferiority complex which lead to emotional disturbance.
4. Environment causes – The forces of the environment begin to play their role from the conception of the child in the womb of the mother in the form of defective nourishment available to him. Uncongenial physical environment, adverse physical environment leads to maladjustment.
5. Faulty method of teaching – Faulty method of teaching do not motivate students. The Lesson becomes dull and drudgery. Student begin to hate every process of education. It creates emotional tension which lead to mental illness.
6. Strict Discipline – Some traditional schools impose strict discipline, such schools are just like jails and the teachers jailors. Those students are always suffering from fear and worry.
7. Lack of equipments (facility)- In some schools, there is lack of furniture and proper equipments. Over crowded classes and poor facilities leads to frustration and mental tension.
8. Lack of guidance and counseling – Mastery over content and subject matter only without caring for the interest of students causes maladjustment. No guidance is provided for various areas at different levels. Students became confused, frustrated and become maladjusted.
9. Lack of recreational facilities – Children who do not get facilities after class in the forms of play, library, debates, discussion, puzzles etc. may have adjustment Problems.
10. Mass media – Children are exposed to mass media, explosion of knowledge, adult issues now a days. It the child witnesses films which depict low sexuality and violence, it may lead to maladjustment.
11. Social laws and bindings – The social laws and legal binding are the most common source of frustrations in one‘s life. Similarly restrictions imposed by parents, teachers, ethical and other groups are common sources of maladjustment.
12. Bad company / neighborhood – Neighbourhood is an important conditioner of child‘s behaviour. Many of our youngsters develop delinquencies because such patterns of behaviour are seen in their neighborhood patterns like lying, stealing, obscene talk, promiscuous sex interest.
PREVENTIVE MEASURES OF MALADJUSTMENT
Following are the measures which prevent maladjustment;
1. Proper encouragement – Parents and teachers should speak daily with the child about his daily activities. So the child can begin to learn the principles of socialization.
2. Proper appreciation – Parents and teachers should directly praise the child for the good things he has done.
3. Delegating responsibility – Parents and teachers should assign some responsibility to the child. This responsibility should evolve tasks which the child perceives as real and important.
4. Provision of entertainment – Provide entertainment facilities like parks, sports clubs, amusement places, theaters, museum to children. We should encourage the child to engage in playing with his peers.
5. Testing – Refer the child for special education testing. In some instances, maladjusted children are eligible for special education services.
6. Pattern of relaxation – The teacher should set a pattern of calmness. Yoga, meditation, stress management courses plays very important roles in preventing maladjustment.
7. Informing progress – Teacher should inform the child of the progress he is making.
8. Timely help – Teacher should help the child when he needs it and not only when he asks for it. If the teacher is wise enough to know when the child requires help, he may be able to help him avoid many traumatic failure experiences.
9. Moral Education – School should provide value education through various methods. Self confidence, co-operation, caring and sharing are the values that can be inculcated through co- curricular programmes.
10. Guidance and counseling – If the teacher works as a guide and counselor for parents and children, many of the negative situations can be turned into positive ones which are beneficial to students.